Barristers and Solicitors
1. Most barristers are professional advocates .earning their living by the presentation of civil and criminal cases in court. A barrister must be capable of prosecuting in a criminal case one day, and defending an accused person the next, or of preparing the pleadings and taking the case for a plaintiff in a civil action one day, and doing the same for a defendant the next. Barristers are experts in the interpretation of the law. They are called in to advise on really difficult points.
2. A would-be barrister1 must first register as a student member of one of the four Inns of Court2. A student must pass a group of examinations to obtain a law degree and then proceed to a vocational course, the passing of which will result in his being called to the Bar3.
3. All practising barristers are junior counsels unless they have been designated Queen's Counsels (QC)4. QC is expected to appear only in the most important cases.
4. If a person has a legal problem he will go and see a solicitor. There is no end to the variety of matters which a solicitor deals with. He does legal work involved in buying a house, he writes legal letters for you and carries on legal arguments outside Court, he prepares the case and the evidence. If you want to make a will the best man to advise you is a solicitor.
5. In a civil action solicitors have a right to speak in the County Court, when the case is one of divorce or recovering some debts, and they deal with petty crimes and some matrimonial matters in Magistrates Courts, the lowest Courts.
6. To become a solicitor a young man joins a solicitor as a «clerk» and works for him while studying part time for the Law Society5 exams. When you have passed all the necessary exams, you may apply to the Law Society to be «admitted». After that you can practise, which means you can start business on your own.
1 would-be barrister — будущий барристер
2 Inns of Court — «Судебные инны» (четыре корпорации барристеров в Лондоне; пользуются исключительным правом приема в адвокатуру; в школах при этих корпорациях готовят барристеров; существуют с XIV в.)
3 to be called to the Bar — быть принятым в коллегию адвокатов
4 Queen's Counsel (QC) — королевский адвокат (высшее адвокатское звание)
5 Law Society — Общество юристов (профессиональный союз солиситоров)
1. What must a barrister be capable of?
2. What must a person do to become a barrister?
3. When can a barrister be called to the Bar?
4. What matters does a solicitor deal with?
5. In what courts does a solicitor have the right to speak?
II. Письменно переведите 4-й и 5-й абзацы, текста.
III. Раскройте скобки, употребив глагол в нужной видо-временной форме.
1. In a year we (to study) criminal law. 2. The case is rather complicated. The jury still (to discuss) a verdict. 3. The convicted person just (to take) to prison. 4. Don't come in! The court (to sit). 5. The doctor said that the victim (to kill) a few hours before.
IV. Из 1-го абзаца текста выпишите предложения, содержащие слова с суффиксом -ing. Определите, какой частью речи они являются.
V. Подчеркните в следующих предложениях инфинитив и определите его форму и функцию.
1. To grant pardon is the prerogative of the Crown. 2. They must have been. arrested over a year ago. 3. The victim is the first person to be interviewed 4. He seems to be investigating a criminal case. 5. A student must pass a group of examinations to obtain a law degree. 6. The aim of the preliminary investigation is to draw up an indictment.
'VI.Переведите предложения, содержащие конструкции с неличными формами глагола.
1. The lower chamber having passed the bill, it went to the upper chamber. 2. For any state to become a member of the United Nations it is necessary to accept the obligations under its Chapter. 3. They want the execution of the sentenced to be postponed. 4. Nobody expected her to testify against her brother. 5. The Queen's Counsels are expected to appear only in the most important cases. 6. He was reported to be preparing an account of the indictment.
VII. Раскройте скобки, употребив нужную форму глагола в придаточных условных предложениях.
1. If the jury (to consider) a prisoner guilty, the judge pronounces a sentence. 2. He would have never taken the case if the barrister (not to believe) in his innocence. 3. If the investigator (to have) more evidence, he would be able to prove the case.
VIII. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на функции и значение слов it и one.
1. It is not easy to investigate a criminal case. 2. As the trial was open to the public many people attended it. 3. It was the Prison Act (1865) which introduced a new approach to imprisonment in England. 4. A «written constitution» is one the whole of which is contained in one or more documents which possess the force of law. 5. One must observe traffic rules.
IX. Определите тип подчинения. В бессоюзных придаточных предложениях отметьте, где может находиться союз.
1. Roman law is one of the greatest systems that has ever existed. 2. They assumed they would be dealing with a gang of dangerous criminals. 3. The Queen formally appoints the judges on the recommendation of the Lord Chancellor who makes the real selection.
Ex. 4. 1-е, 2-f, 3-b, 4-c, 5-d, 6-a, 7-h, 8-i, 9-g.
Ex.5. 1-b, 2-е, 3-е, 4-c, 5-a.
Ex. 4. 1-f, 2-h, 3-b, 4-i, 5-a, 6-c, 7-j, 8-d, 9-g, 10-e.
Ex. 5. 1-е, 2-b, 3-е, 4-a, 5-b.