III. Use monolingual English dictionary and write down what could the words given below mean:

concentration, factor, intensity, light, wavelength, vegetation.


IV. Match these words with their definitions:

photosynthesis A. connected with the outside of a surface
investigation B. the amount of space that a substance or object contains or fills
light C. the production by a green plant of special substances like sugar that it uses as food, caused by the action of sunlight on chlorophyll
factor D. the process of making chemical reaction quicker by adding a catalyst
external E. a small bush with several woody stems
internal F. one of the possible different forms of an atom of a particular element
7. supply G. an official attempt to find out the reasons for something such as a crime, accident or scientific problem
8. catalysis H. the energy from the sun, a lamp, a flame etc. that allows you to see things
9. limiting I. inside something
shrub J. a chemical substance produced by living cells in plants and animals, that causes changes in other chemical substances without being changed itself
to measure K. preventing any improvement or increase in something
12. volume L. one of several things that influence or cause a situation
13. enzyme M. an amount of something that is available to be used
14. velocity N. to find the size, length, or amount of something using standard units
15. isotope O. the speed at which something moves in a particular direction

V. Find English equivalents to the following word combinations:

Russian term English equivalent
1. точное измерение  
2. используется растениями для дыхания  
3. внешние и внутренние факторы  
4. может быть продемонстрировано  
5. прямо пропорционально чему-либо  
6. изменения в температуре  
7. ограничивающий фактор  
8. наименее благоприятный  
9. приводит к увеличению  
10. в ответ на  
11. оптимальный уровень  

VI. Give Russian equivalents to the following English terms:

English term Russian equivalent
the rate of photosynthesis  
produced per unit time  
compensation point  
light intensity  
concentration of photosynthetic pigments  
a heavy isotope of oxygen  
sun plants and shade plants  
to be sensitive to temperature  
to be driven by light  
to be similar to  
have little effect on the reactions  
under natural conditions  

VII. Find synonyms among the pool of words:

Pool of words Synonyms
3)1.factor /2.strength /3.component /4.intensity  
4)1.improvement /2.isolated /3.separated /4.development  

VIII. Answer the following questions. Use all information given before:

1. How can the rate of photosynthesis be measured?

2. What is the compensation point?

3. What is the compensation point related to?

4. Is photosynthesis affected by external and internal factors?

5. What do external factors include?

6. What do internal factors include?

7. What is the effect of light intensity, carbon dioxide level, temperature on the rate of photosynthesis?

8. What does the law of limiting factors state?


IX. Match the sentence halves. Make complete sentences:

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