VI. Complete the following sentences choosing the most suitable variant
1. Laser produces
a) an intensive beam of light
b) hundreds of operations a second
c) integrated circuits
2. The laser’s most important potential may be its use …
a) in telephone
b) in broadcasting
c) in communications
3. Laser has become one of
a) the most complex signals
b) the most heat resistant materials
c) the main technological tools
4. There also exists an idea to use laser for solving the problem of
a) controlled thermonuclear reaction
b) using electricity in devices
c) detecting signals
VII. Read the first sentence of paragraph 4 and mark pauses. Divide it into sense groups, find out the means of connection between these sense groups and between the words in each group.
VIII. In paragraphs 2 and 3 find English equivalents of the following words and word combinations:
сложный, свет, обеспечить, испарять, теплостойкий, вещество, инструмент, применение, открытие, установка, решение, проводить эксперименты, требуемая температура, в соответствии с, приблизительно.
IX. Read paragraph 4 and answer the questions.
a. Which laser’s potential is the most important?
b. What can be rapidly changed to encode complex signals?
c. Does one laser beam vibrate faster than ordinary radio waves?
d. How much time does it take to transmit the entire text of the Encyclopedia Britannica?
X. In paragraph 5 find information about projects to use lasers for
distance communication and for transmission of energy to space stations.
XI. Make an outline of the text.
XII. Speak about laser and its applications in industry.
I. Look through the list of English words and their Russian equivalents facilitating reading text B.
1) attractive – привлекательный
2) concern – касаться, относиться
3) contents – содержание
4) enable – давать возможность
5) feature – особенность
6) link – соединять
7) provide – обеспечивать
8) represent – представлять
9) require – требовать
10. store – запасать, хранить
II. Define the meaning of the “x” words.
1) create: creation = создавать: x
2) explore: exploration: x
3) employ: employment: x
4) reside: residence: x
5) locate: location: x
6) transmit: transmission: x
7) store: storage: x
III. Complete the sentences with the given words:
provides, hypertext, information, Web sites, clicking, links
1. By … the computer’s mouse on an element, the user gives the
2. The Internet … computers and computer networks around the
3. The Web is made up of electronic addresses called … .
4. A Web browser is a software package used to locate and display … on the Web.
5. Another major feature of the Web is … .
6. World Wide Web is the part of the Internet that … sounds, pictures, and moving images in addition to text.
1) move, movement, moving, moved
2) know, known, knowledge, unknown
3) understanding, understand, understandable, misunderstand
4) locate, location, located, locating
5) imagine, imaginary, imagination, imaginable
1) wide, widen, widely, width
2) short, shortly, shorten, shortage
3) physics, physicist, physical, physically
4) specific, specify, specification, specifically
5) introduce, introduction, introductory, introducing
V. Read the text and say which paragraph contains the information about hypertext.
1.World Wide Webis the part of the Internet that provides sounds, pictures and moving images in addition to text. The Internet links computers and computer networks around the world, but the portion of the network not on the World Wide Web (often called the Web, for short) contains only text information. The Web, however, has multimedia capabilities – including graphics, audio, and video. The Web is made up of electronic addresses called Web sites, which contain Web pages that hold the multimedia information. Web sites and their pages reside in computers connected to the Internet.
2. Tim Berners-Lee, an English computer scientist at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) physics laboratory near Geneva, Switzerland, wrote the Web software in 1990. The Web became part of the Internet in 1991. The introduction of the Web helped make the Internet popular and easier to use.
3. Many computer users find the Web's multimedia contents more attractive than text-only contents. In addition, Web browsers make the Web easy to use. A Web browser is a software package used to locate and display information on the Web. To find information on other parts of the Internet requires complex software and knowledge of specific computer commands. A Web browser is easier to use because it employs a graphical user interface – a way of interacting with a computer using pictures as well as words. The pictures represent commands in a manner that is easy to understand. For example, a small picture of a printer represents the command to print a document. By clicking the computer's mouse on an element, the user gives the computer command represented by that element.
4. Another major feature of the Web is hypertext. Hypertext enables a user to jump from one document to another – even if the documents are stored on different parts of the Internet. For example, in a Web site concerning space exploration, the words space shuttle might be highlighted. Clicking on these words would bring information about the shuttle to the screen. Pictures, too, can be used as hyperlinks (hypertext links). Words and pictures that hyperlink to other documents are called hot spots. Hot spots and their hyperlinks are created by the author of a Web page.
VI. Answer the questions:
1. What does World Wide Web provide?
2. What is the main function of the Internet?
3. How are electronic addresses called?
4. Who wrote the Web software in 1990?
5. When did the Web become part of the Internet?
6. What is a Web browser?
7. What enables a user to jump from one document to another?
VII. Match parts of the sentences in columns A and B.
VIII. Divide the text into logical parts and find the topical sentences in
IX. Give a short summary of text B.
I. Read the following text and entitle it.
1. One of the most interesting developments in telecommunication is the rapid progress of optical communication where optical fibers are replacing conventional wires and cables. Just as digital technologies greatly improved the telephone system, optical communication promises a considerable increase in capacity, quality, performance and reliability of the global telecommunication network. New technologies such as optical fibers will increase the speed of telecommunication and provide new, specialized information service. Voice, computer data, even video images, will be increasingly integrated into a single digital communication network capable to process and transmit virtually any kind of information.
2. It is a result of combining two technologies: the laser, first demonstrated in 1960, and the fabrication 10 years later of ultra-thin silicon fibres which can serve as light wave conductors. With the further development of very efficient lasers plus continually improved techniques to produce thin silica of incredible transparency, optical systems can transmit pulses of light as far as 135 kilometers without the need for amplification or regeneration.
3. At present high-capacity optical transmission systems are being installed between many major US cities at a rapid rate. The system most widely used now operates at 147 megabits (thousand bits) per second and accommodates 6,000 circuits over a single pair of glass fibres (one for each direction of transmission). This system will soon be improved to operate at 1.7 gigabits (thousand million bits) per second and handle 24,000 telephone channels simultaneously.
4. A revolution in information storage is underway with optical disk technology. The first optical disks appeared in the early 1970s. They were and are used to record video films, but in a continuous spiral rather than digitally.
5. The first digital optical disks were produced in 1982 as compact disks for music. They were further developed as a storage medium for computers. The disks are made of plastics coated with aluminum. The information is recorded by using a powerful laser to imprint bubbles on the surface of the disk. A less powerful laser reads back the pictures, sound or information. An optical disk is almost indestructible and can store about 1000 times more information than a plastic disk of the same size.
6. The latest optical disk development is a system which enables computer users to record their own information on a glass or plastic disk coated with a thin film of tellurium. Such a disk can store 200 megabytes (200 million characters).
7. Besides, it is reported that an optical equivalent of a transistor has been produced and intensive research on optical electronic computers is underway at a number of US companies as well as in countries around the world.
8. It is found that optical technology is cost-effective and versatile. It finds new applications every day – from connecting communication equipment or computers within the same building or room to long-distance transcontinental, transoceanic and space communications.
II. Read the text and find the information about high-capacity optical transmission systems.
III. Which paragraph contains the information about first digital optical disks?
IV. Answer the following questions on the contents of the text.
1. What are optical fibers replacing?
2. What kinds of systems are being installed at present?
3. When did the first optical disks appear?
4. When were the first digital optical discs produced?
V. Give the main points of the text in 5-6 sentences.
I. Study the following words and choose:
a) a noun
II. Arrange the words of the two groups in pairs
1. with similar meaning:
a) huge, various, require, supplement, tie, existence, carry, convert, data, instantaneously, transmit, change, consist, use, by means of.
b) with the help of, alter, send, enormous, information, different, connect, apply, compose, conduct, immediately, being, addition, demand, transform.
2. with contrary meaning:
a) transmit, various, tie, wide, thin, include, allow, encode, rapidly.
b) separate, exclude, receive, slowly, decode, similar, forbid, narrow, thick.
III. Match the words with their definitions.
IV. Study the text and try to understand all the details.
1. Communication ties together the parts of a society just as the nervous system ties together the parts of an individual. From earliest times, when the only form of communication was speech, to the present, when electronic signals carry information instantly to practically any point on Earth, communication has been the way people have organized their cooperative activities. In the modern world there are two main types of communications media. One type consists of the mass media—such as television, radio, newspapers, and magazines—in which organizations send messages to a large number of people. The other type consists of direct, point-to-point communications—telephone, telegraph, data transmission, and postal service. Of these, the electronic media (all but the postal service) are termed telecommunications.
2. Telecommunication first came into existence with the development of the telegraph in the 1830s and 1840s. For the first time, news and information could be transmitted over great distances almost instantaneously. The invention of the telephone in 1876 by Alexander Graham Bell fundamentally transformed telecommunications. The telephone system assumed its modern form with the development of dial phoning and its spread during the middle decades of the 20thcentury.
3. After 1975, however, a new transformation of telecommunications began. The technology used to carry information changed radically. At the same time ordinary telephone and telegraph traffic was enormously supplemented by huge masses of computer data, as millions of computers were tied together into global networks.
4. In most cases telecommunications systems transmit information by wire, radio, or space satellite. Wire transmission involves sending electrical signals over various types of wire lines such as open wire, multi pair cable, and coaxial cable. These lines can be used to transmit voice frequencies, telegraph messages, computer-processed data, and television programs. Another somewhat related transmission medium that has come into increasingly wider use, especially in telephone communications, is a type of cable composed of optical fibers. Here electrical signals converted to light signals by a laser-driven transmitter carry both speech and data over bundles of thin glass or plastic filaments.
5. Radio communications systems transmit electronic signals in relatively narrow frequency bands through the air. They include radio navigation and both amateur and commercial broadcasting. Commercial broadcasting consists of AM, FM, and TV broadcasting for general public use.
6. Satellite communications allow the exchange of television or telephone signals between widely separated locations by means of microwaves. Since satellite systems do not require the construction of intermediate relay or repeater stations, as do ground-based microwave systems, they can be put into service much more rapidly.
Modern telecommunications networks thus not only send the traditional voice communications of telephones and the printed messages of telegraphs and telexes, they also carry images of video transmissions used in videoconferences in which the participants can see as well as hear each other. Additionally they carry encoded data ranging from the business accounts of a multinational corporation to medical data relayed for analysis by physicians thousands of miles from a patient.
V. Say whether the following statements are true or false.
1. Electronic signals carry information to practically any point on the Earth.
2. Mass media send messages to a large number of people.
3. All mass media including postal service are called telecommunications.
4. Telecommunications first appeared with the development of telegraph in the 1830s and 1840s.
5. The technology used to carry information slightly changed after 1975.
6. Radio communications systems transmit electronic signals in extremely wide frequency bands through the air.
7. Satellite communications permit the exchange of signals by means of microwaves.
8. Ground-based microwave systems require the construction of repeater stations.
9. The still images of facsimile machines or the moving images of video can also be carried by modern telecommunications networks.
10. Modern telecommunications networks transmit only coded data.
VI. Complete the following sentences choosing the most suitable variant.
1. One type consists of the mass media such as
a) television, radio, newspapers, and magazines
b) telephone, telegraph, data transmission
c) television, telephone, telegraph and postal service
2. The telephone system assumed its modern form with the development of … during the middle decades of the 20thcentury.
a) telegraph traffic
b) dial phoning
c) facsimile machines
3. In most cases telecommunications systems transmit information by:
a) open wire, telexes, or faxes
b) coaxial cable, optical fibers, or global networks
c) wire, radio, or space satellite
4. Radio communications systems include
a) radio navigation, radio location and communication
b) radio navigation and both amateur and commercial broadcasting
c) radio detection, TV broadcasting and video television transmissions
5. In optical fibres electrical signals converted to light signals by a laser-driven transmitter carry
a) both encoded data and still images of facsimile machines
b) both voice frequencies and printed messages
c) both speech and data
VII. Read § 1 and answer the following questions.
1. What does communication tie?
2. How many types of communications media are there in the world?
3. What medium can't be referred to telecommunications?
VIII. Read § 2 and say who fundamentally transformed telecommunications.
IX. Read § 3 and explain why ordinary telephone and telegraph traffic was fundamentally supplemented by huge masses of computer data.
X. In § 4 and § 5 find English equivalents of the following words and word combinations.
Передавать информацию, оптические волокна, пучки, проводная передача, коаксиальный кабель, относительно, полоса частот, преобразовывать в световые сигналы, нить накала.
XI. Read the fourth sentence of § 4 and mark pauses. Divide it into sense groups, find out the means of connection between these groups and between the words in each group.
XII. In §6 find information about the capabilities of modern telecommunications networks.
XIII. Make an outline of the text.
XIV. Speak on
1. The importance of communication in the modern world and its types.
2. The origin and the development of telecommunication.
3. Different communications systems.
4. Modern telecommunications networks.
I. Look through the list of key-words and make your predictions about the content of it.
Word processing, personal computers, dedicated word processors,
electronic typewriters, software, powerful tool.
II. Define the meaning of the “x” words
1) provide : provision = обеспечивать : “x”
2) resemble : resemblance = “x” : сходство
3) delete : deletion = удалять : ”x”
4) entire : entirely = полный : “x”
5) replace : replacement = “x” : замена
6) versatile : versatility = многосторонний : “x”
7) perform : performance = выполнять : “x”
8) add : additional = дополнять : “x”
9) process : processing = “x” : обработка
III. Complete the sentences with the given words: linked, introduced, a magnetic disk, software, most expensive, has replaced, to check, characters
1. Word processing … typewriting for many tasks at home, in school and in the office.
2. Personal computers need special instructions called … to perform word processing.
3. Personal computers display … on a computer screen as the user types them.
4. Computers can transfer information to other computers … in a network or send information over telephone lines.
5. Most word processing programs and dedicated word processors enable the user … for spelling errors.
6. The computer can store the document on … so additional copies or corrections can easily be made later.
7. Personal computers are also … processing machines.
8. Computer companies … relatively expensive dedicated word processors in the mid-1970's.
1) expense – expend – expensive – expenditure
2) powerfully – power – powerless – powered
3) relate – relativity – relatively – relative
4) special – specially – specialize – specification
5) instruct – instructive – instruction – instructor
1) equip – equipment – equipping – equipped
2) moved – move – movement – mover
3) limitation – limit – limited – limiting
4) edits – editor – edit – edited
5) character – characterize – characteristics – characterized
V.Read the text and entitle it.
1. Word processingis the use of computers to type, edit, and print letters, reports, articles, and other documents. It has replaced typewriting for many tasks at home, in school, and in the office. Business people, authors, students, and lawyers turn to word processing as a tool for writing.
Three main types of equipment are used for word processing: (1) personal computers, (2) dedicated word processors, and (3) electronic typewriters. Personal computers need special instructions called programs or software to perform word processing. Dedicated word processors are computers that do only word processing. Most dedicated word processors have built-in word processing software. Electronic typewriters resemble electric typewriters but include a built-in dedicated computer. The computer provides limited word processing capabilities, such as the ability to store and automatically type a small amount of text.
2. Personal computers and dedicated word processors display characters on a computer screen as the user types them. Words, lines, paragraphs, and pages can be added, deleted, moved, or copied with a few keystrokes or the click of a button on a handheld control called a mouse. Most word processing programs and dedicated word processors enable the user to check for spelling errors. Many can check grammar in a limited way.
3. At the touch of a key, the user can print out an entire document. The computer can store the document on a magnetic disk, so additional copies or corrections can easily be made later. In addition, most word processing programs for personal computers and some dedicated word processors can sort and merge lists and perform limited mathematical computations.
Personal computers are the most powerful and versatile of the word processing machines. They can be programmed to do many things besides word processing. Computers can transfer information to other computers linked in a network or, using a device called a modem, send information over telephone lines. Personal computers are also the most expensive word processing machines. Dedicated word processors are a less expensive option for individuals and small businesses whose computer needs are limited to word processing.
4. Electronic typewriters can perform only the most basic word processing functions, such as inserting, deleting, and underlining text. Most can also check for spelling errors. On many electronic typewriters, a small screen displays material as it is typed. Many electronic typewriter have a memory, but the amount of text it can store is much smaller than in a personal computer or dedicated word processor.
5. Computer companies introduced relatively expensive dedicated word processors in the mid-1970's. Prices fell in the 1980's, and personal computers and word processing programs for personal computers became common. Personal computers are the most widely used form of word processor.
VI. Choose the right continuation of the following sentences.
VII. Divide the text into logical parts and find the topical sentences in each part.
VIII. Give a short summary of text B.
I. Look at the title. What do you think this reading will be about?