Text A: «THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA»




The United States of America is the 4th largest country in the world after Russia, Canada and China. It occupies the central part of the North American continent.

The United States of America is a federal republic, consisting of 50 states including the states of Alaska and Hawaii.Outlying areas include Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, and the US Virgin Islands.

The northern boundary is partly formed by the Great Lakes and the St Lawrence River; the southern boundary is partly formed by the Rio Grande. United States also has a sea-border with Russia.

The total area of the United States (including the District of Columbia) is about 9,809,000 sq km.

The country is washed by 3 oceans: the Arctic, the Atlantic and the Pacific. The country has many lakes, with the Great Lakesincluded. There are also many rivers on the US territory. The longest of them are the Mississippi, the Missouri, the Columbia, the Rio Grande and some others. On the US territory there are mountains and lowlands. The highest mountains are the Rocky Mountains, the Cordillera and the Sierra Nevada. The highest peak, Mount McKinley, islocated in Alaska.

The climate conditions are rather different. The country is rich in natural and mineral resources: oil, gas, iron ore, coal and various metals.

The USA is a highly developed industrial and agricultural country. The main industrial branches areaircraft,rocket, automobile, electronics, radio-engineering and others.

Americans are made up from nearly all races and nations. The country population is over 250 min. The na­tional symbol of the USA is its national flag «Stars and Stripes», having 50 white stars and 13 white and red stripes on its field, symbolising the number of the original and present day states.

Officially the country comprises 50 states and one District of Columbia. The states differ in size, population and economic development. Each state has its own capital. The capital of the USA is Washington. It is situated in the District of Columbia on the banks of the Potomac river and is named after the 1st US President - George Washington. There are many large cities in the country: New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Philadelphia, Detroit, San-Francisco, Cleveland and some others.

The United States of America is a federal state, headed by the President. According to the US Constitution the powers of the Government are divided into 3 branches: legislative, executive and judicial.

Thelegislative power belongs to the Congress consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate represents the states while the House of Representatives — the population. The executive power belongs to the President and his Administration (Vice-President and Cabinet of Ministers). The judicial power belongs to the Supreme Court and the system of Federal, state and district courts.

There are several political parties in the USA, the largest of them are the Republican (symbolised by adonkey)and the Democratic (symbolised by an elephant).

Vocabulary:


outlying areas — внешние территории

District of Columbia — округ Колумбия

to pass — проходить через

frontier — граница

to include — включать

lowlands — низины

peak — вершина, пик

to be located — располагаться

aircraft — воздушное судно

to be made up from — быть составленным, состоять из

stripe — полоса

to symbolize — символизировать

legislative power — законодательная власть

to represent — представлять

to belong — принадлежать

donkey — осел


ADD TO YOUR ACTIVE VOCABULARY:


a) Great Plains — Великие равнины

Appalachian mountains — Аппалачские горы

Rocky mountains — Скалистые горы

b) driveway — проезд, выезд

sidewalk — тротуар

drive-thru shop — магазин, покупки в котором производятся через окно автомобиля

toll-road — платная дорога (магистраль)

toll-free road — бесплатная дорога

highway, parkway, thruway — автомагистрали

turnpike — главная магистраль

shopping-mall — торговый центр

shopping plaza — открытая торговая площадь, торговый ряд

free delivery — бесплатная доставка

telephone order — телефонный заказ

sale — распродажа

discount — скидка

seasons sale — сезонная распродажа

clearance sale — распродажа залежей товаров

discount coupon — купон на скидку

free gift — бесплатный подарок


Exercise 7.1. Translate into English:

1. США — четвертая по размеру страна после России, Канады и Китая.

2. Внешние границы включают в себя Пуэрто Рико, Американское Самоа и Виргинские острова.

3.48 Штатов граничат на севере с Канадой, а на юге с Мексикой.

4. США имеет морскую границу с Российской Федерацией.

6. США омывается тремя океанами: Северным Ледовитым, Атлантическим и Тихим.

7. США — высокоразвитое промышленное государство со множеством отраслей.

8. Аэрокосмическая и электронные отрасли промышленности США занимают особое место в экономике США.

9. Каждый штат имеет свою столицу.





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