I. Text A: «Welding», Text В: «Other types of welding»
II. Famous People of Science and Technology: James Prescott Joule.
Text A: «WELDING»
Welding is a process when metal parts arejoined together by the application of heat, pressure, or a combination of both. The processes of welding can be divided into two main groups:
• pressure welding, when the weld isachieved by pressure and
• heat welding, when the weld is achieved by heat. Heat welding is the most common welding process used today.
Nowadays welding is usedinstead of bolting andriveting in the construction of many types of structures, including bridges, buildings, and ships. It is also abasicprocess in themanufacture of machinery and in the motor and aircraft industries. It is necessary almost in all productions where metals are used.
The welding processdepends greatly on the properties of the metals, thepurpose of their application and theavailable equipment. Welding processes are classified according to thesources of heat and pressure used.
The welding processes widely employed today include gas welding, arc welding, and resistancewelding. Other joining processes arelaser welding, andelectron-beam welding.
Gas welding is a non-pressure process using heat from a gasflame. The flame is applied directly to the metal edges to be joined andsimultaneously to a filler metalin the form ofwire or rod, called the welding rod, which ismelted to thejoint.Gas welding has theadvantage of using equipment that is portable and does notrequire an electric power source. Thesurfaces to be welded and the welding rod arecoated withflux, afusible material that shields the material from air, which would result in a defective weld.
Arc-welding is the most important welding process for joining steels. It requires a continuous supply of either direct or alternating electrical current. This current is used tocreate an electric arc, which generates enough heat to melt metal and create a weld.
Arc welding has several advantages over other welding methods. Arc welding is faster because the concentration of heat is high. Also, fluxes are not necessary in certain methods of arc welding. The most widely used arc-welding processes areshielded metal arc, gas-tungsten arc, gas-metal arc, andsubmerged arc.
Shielded Metal Arc
In shielded metal-arc welding, a metallic electrode, which conducts electricity, is coated with flux and connected to a source of electric current. The metal to be welded is connected to the other end of the same source of current. An electric arc is formed bytouching thetipof the electrode to the metal and then drawing it away. The intense heat of the arc melts both parts to be welded and the point of the metal electrode, which suppliesfillermetal for the weld. This process is used mainly for welding steels.
to join — соединять
pressure welding — сварка давлением
heat welding — сварка нагреванием
instead — вместо, взамен
bolting — скрепление болтами
riveting — клепка
basic — основной
to manufacture — изготовлять
to depend — зависеть от
purpose — цель
available — имеющийся в наличии
equipment — оборудование
source — источник
gas welding — газосварка
arc welding — электродуговая сварка
resistance welding — контактная сварка
laser welding — лазерная сварка
electron-beam welding — электронно-лучевая сварка
flame — пламя
simultaneously — одновременно
filler — наполнитель
wire — проволока
rod — прут, стержень
to melt — плавить(ся)
joint — соединение, стык
advantage — преимущество
to require — требовать нуждаться
coated — покрытый
flux — флюс
fusible — плавкий
to shield — заслонять, защищать
touching — касание
tip — кончик
1. How can a process of welding be defined?
2. What are the two main groups of processes of welding?
3. How can we join metal parts together?
4. What is welding used for nowadays?
5. Where is welding necessary?
6. What do the welding processes of today include?
7. What are the principles of gas welding?
8. What kinds of welding can be used for joining steels?
9. What does arc welding require? 10. What is the difference between the arc welding and shielded-metal welding?
Exercise 6.1. Find the following words and word combinations in the text:
1. сварка давлением
2. тепловая сварка
3. болтовое (клепаное) соединение
4. процесс сварки
5. зависеть от свойств металлов
6. имеющееся оборудование
7. сварочный электрод
8. плавкий материал
9. дефектный сварной шов
10. непрерывная подача электрического тока
11. электрическая дуга
12. источник электрического тока