James Prescott Joule, famous British physicist, was born in 1818 in Salford, England.
Joule was one of the most outstanding physicists of his time. He is best known for his research in electricity and thermodynamics. In the course of his investigations of the heat emitted in an electrical circuit, he formulated the law, now known as Joule's law of electric heating. This law states that the amount of heat produced each second in a conductor by electric current is proportional to the resistance of the conductor and to the square of the current. Joule experimentally verified the law of conservation of energy in his study of the conversion of mechanical energy into heat energy.
Joule determined the numerical relation between heat and mechanical energy, or the mechanical equivalent of heat, using many independent methods. The unit of energy, called thejoule, is named after him. It is equal to 1 watt-second. Together with the physicist William Thomson (Baron Kelvin), Joule found that the temperature of a gas falls when it expands without doing any work. This phenomenon, which became known as the Joule-Thomson effect, lies in the operation of modern refrigeration and air-conditioning systems.
AUTOMATION AND ROBOTICS
I. Text A: «Automation», Text B: «Types of automation»,
Text C: «Robots In manufacturing»
II. Famous people of science and technology: James Watt.
Text A: «AUTOMATION»
Automation is the system of manufacture performing certain tasks,previously done by people, by machines only. Thesequences of operations are controlled automatically. The most familiar example of a highly automated system is anassembly plant for automobiles or other complex products.
The term automation is also used to describenon-manufacturing systems in which automaticdevices can operate independently of human control. Such devices as automatic pilots, automatic telephone equipment and automated control systems are used to perform various operations much faster and better than could be done by people.
Automated manufacturing had several steps in its development. Mechanization was the first step necessary in the development of automation. The simplification of work made it possible to design and build machines that resembled the motions of the worker. These specialized machines were motorized and they had better production efficiency.
Industrial robots, originally designed only to perform simple tasks in environments dangerous to human workers, are now widely used to transfer, manipulate, and position both light and heavy workpieces performing all the functions of a transfer machine.
In the 1920s the automobile industry for the first time used an integrated system of production. This method of production was adopted by most car manufacturers and became known as Detroit automation.
The feedback principle is used in all automatic-control mechanisms when machines have ability to correct themselves. The feedback principle has been used for centuries. An outstanding early example is theflyball governor, invented in 1788 by James Watt to control the speed of thesteam engine. The commonhousehold thermostat is another example of a feedback device.
Using feedback devices, machines can start, stop, speed up, slow down, count, inspect, test, compare, and measure. These operations are commonly applied to a wide variety of production operations.
Computers have greatlyfacilitated the use of feedback in manufacturing processes. Computers gave rise to the development of numerically controlled machines. The motions of these machines are controlled bypunchedpaper or magnetic tapes. In numerically controlled machining centres machine tools can perform several different machining operations.
More recently, the introduction of microprocessors and computers have made possible the development of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacture (CAD and CAM) technologies. When using these systems a designer draws a part and indicates itsdimensions with the help of a mouse, light pen, or other input device. After the drawing has been completed the computer automatically gives the instructions that direct a machining centre to machine the part.
Another development using automation are the flexible manufacturing systems (FMS). A computer in FMS can be used to monitor and control the operation of the whole factory.
Automation has also had an influence on the areas of the economy other than manufacturing. Small computers are used in systems called word processors, which are rapidly becoming a standard part of the modern office. They are used to edit texts, to type letters and so on.
Automation in Industry
Many industries are highly automated or use automation technology in some part of their operation. In communications and especially in the telephone industry dialing and transmission are all done automatically. Railways are also controlled by automatic signaling devices, which have sensors that detect carriages passing a particular point. In this way the movement and location of trains can be monitored.
Not all industries require the same degree of automation. Sales, agriculture, and some service industries are difficult to automate, though agriculture industry may become more mechanized, especially in the processing and packaging of foods.
The automation technology in manufacturing and assembly is widely used in car and other consumer product industries.
Nevertheless, each industry has its own concept of automation that answers its particular production needs.
automation — автоматизация
previously — ранее
sequence — последовательность
assembly plant — сборочный завод
non-manufacturing — непроизводственный
device — устройство, прибор
resemble — походить
efficiency — эффективность
flyball governor — центробежный регулятор
steam engine — паровоз
household thermostat — бытовой термостат
facilitate — способствовать
aid — помощь
dimension — измерение, размеры
1. How is the term automation defined in the text?
2. What is the most «familiar example» of automation given in the text?
3. What was the first step in the development of automaton?
4. What were the first robots originally designed for?
5. What was the first industry to adopt the new integrated system of production?
6. What is feedback principle?
7. What do the abbreviations CAM and CAD stand for?
8. What is FMS?
9. What industries use automation technologies?
Exercise 7.1. Find the following words and word combinations in the text:
1. автоматические устройства
2. автоматизированное производство
3. выполнять простые задачи
4. как легкие, так и тяжелые детали
5. интегрированная система производства
6. принцип обратной связи
7. механизм может разгоняться и тормозить
8. компьютер автоматически посылает команды
9. высокоавтоматизированная система
10. непроизводственная система