Text A: «OPERATING SYSTEMS»
When computers were first introduced in the 1940's and 50's, every program written had to provide instructions that told the computer how to use devices such as the printer, how to store information on a disk, as well as how to perform several other tasks not necessarily related to the program. The additional program instructions for working with hardware devices were very complex, and time-consuming. Programmers soon realized it would be smarter to develop one program that could control the computer's hardware, which others programs could have used when they needed it. With that, the first operating system was born.
Today, operating systems control and manage the use of hardware devices such as the printer or mouse. They also provide disk management by letting you store information in files. The operating system also lets you run programs such as the basic word processor. Lastly, the operating system provides several of its own commands that help you to use the computer.
DOS is the most commonly used PC operating system. DOS is an abbreviation for disk operating system. DOS was developed by a company named Microsoft. MS-DOS is an abbreviation for «Microsoft DOS». When IBM first released the IBM PC in 1981, IBM licensed DOS from Microsoft for use on the PC and called it PC-DOS. From the users perspective, PC-DOS and MS-DOS are the same, each providing the same capabilities and commands.
The version of DOS release in 1981 was 1.0. Over the past decade, DOS has undergone several changes. Each time the DOS developers release a new version, they increase the version number.
Windows NT(new technology) is an operating system developed by Microsoft. NT is an enhanced version of the popular Microsoft Windows 3.0, 3.1 programs. NT requires a 386 processor or greater and 8 Mb of RAM. For the best NT performance, you have to use a 486 processor with about 16 Mb or higher. Unlike the Windows, which runs on top of DOS, Windows NT is an operating system itself. However, NT is DOS compatible. The advantage of using NT over Windows is that NT makes better use of the PC's memory management capabilities.
OS/2 is a PC operating system created by IBM. Like NT, OS/2 is DOS compatible and provides a graphical user interface that lets you run programs with a click of a mouse. Also like NT, OS/2 performs best when you are using a powerful system. Many IBM-based PCs are shipped with OS/2 preinstalled.
UNIX is a multi-user operating system that allows multiple users to access the system. Traditionally, UNIX was run on a larger mini computers to which users accessed the systems using terminals and not PC's. UNIX allowed each user to simultaneously run the programs they desired. Unlike NT and OS/2, UNIX is not DOS compatible. Most users would not purchase UNIX for their own use.
Windows 95 & 98 (Windows 2000) are the most popular user-oriented operating systems with a friendly interface and multitasking capabilities. The usage of Windows 95 and its enhanced version Windows 98 is so simple that even little kids learn how to use it very quickly. Windows 95 and 98 are DOS compatible, so all programs written for DOS may work under the new operating system.
Windows 95 requires 486 processor with 16 megabytes of RAM or Pentium 75-90 with 40 megabytes of free hard disk space.
complex — сложный
to consume — потреблять
consumer — потребитель
to realize — понять, осознать
smart — умный
decade — декада, десятилетие
to enhance — увеличивать, расширять
top — верх, вершина
on top of DOS — «сверху», на основе ДОС
are shipped — поставляются
compatible — совместимый
with a click of a mouse — одним щелчком кнопки мыши
access — доступ
to allow — позволять
multiple users — многочисленные пользователи
simultaneously — одновременно
to desire — желать
to ship — поставлять, доставлять
1) What problems faced programmers in the 1940's and 1950's?
2) Why were the first programs «complex» and «time-consuming»?
3) What are the basic functions of operating system?
4) What does the abbreviation DOS mean?
5) What company developed the first version ofDOSoperating system? For what purpose was it done? Was the new operational system successful?
6) What is the difference between the PC-DOS and MS-DOS
7) What does the abbreviation NT stand for? Is NT DOS-compatible? What are the basic requirements for NT?
8) Who is the developer of OS/2?
9) What makes UNIX so different from the other operational systems?
10) What are the special features of Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows 2000?
Exercise 9.1. Match the following:
1) Like NT, ... is DOS compatible and provides a graphical user interface that lets you run programmes with a click of a mouse.
2)... is the most commonly used PC operating system
3)... is a multi-user operating system that allows multiple users to access the system
4)... is an operating system developed by Microsoft, an enhanced version of the popular Microsoft Windows programs.
5) The usage of... is so simple that even little kids learn how to use it very quickly.
e) Windows 95
Exercise 9.2. Which of the listed below statements are true/false. Specify your answer using the text.
1) When computers were first introduced in 40's and 50's programmers had to write programs to instruct CD-ROMs, laser printers and scanners.
2) The operational system controls and manages the use of the hardware and the memory.
3) There are no commands available in operating systems, they are only in word processors.
4) Microsoft developed MS-DOS to compete with IBM's PC-DOS.
5) NT requires computers with 486 CPU and 16 M random access memory.
6) OS/2 is DOS compatible because it was developed by Microsoft.
7) Traditionally, UNIX was run by many users simultaneously.
8) Windows 95 and Windows 98 are DOS compatible and have very «friendly» and convenient interface.
Exercise 9.3. Translate into English:
1) Современная операционные системы контролируют использование системного оборудования, например, принтера и мыши.
2) С точки зрения пользователя, операционные системы PC-DOS и MS-DOS идентичны, с равными возможностями и набором системных команд.
3) OS/2 является DOS -совместимой операционной системой, позволяющей запускать программы при помощи графического интерфейса пользователя.
4) Дополнительные программы для работы с устройствами системного оборудования были очень сложны и поглощали много времени.
5) Операционная система также позволяет запускать программы, такие как простейший текстовый редактор.
6) DOS — наиболее распространенная операционная система для персонального компьютера.
Questions for group discussion:
1) Why do you think Bill Gates, President of Microsoft Company is one of the richest people on the Earth?
2) Judging from your experience tell if UNIX is used nowadays? What about OS/2?
3) Ask the students in your group who have experience working with Windows 95 and Windows 98 about the advantages and disadvantages of these operational systems.
Text B: «WINDOWS 95»
Windows 95 is a new operational system with an easy interface based on the expanding windows principle which uses icons to graphically represent files and their types.
Windows 95 makes the way you and your computer interact easy. Most everyday tasks are now easier to accomplish than ever before. For example, the second mouse button has become a powerful weapon. The old Windows 3.0 Program Manager and File Manager have been replaced. The desktop tools that replace them are very like those found on a Macintosh. For example, there is a Recycle Bin that makes it easier to recover accidentally deleted files.
Your computer probably will crash less running Windows 95 than it did with Windows 3.1 and 3.0 or even DOS. Most memory related problems have been removed. Built-in networking features make it easy to reliably share files with co-workers across the room or across the world. And MS-DOS as we know it is so well hidden that you'll rarely give it a thought. Yes, you can still run DOS programs and older Windows applications but most users will probably want to spend most of their time using Windows 95 applications instead.
Microsoft says that it is moving forward to the time when we'll all think more about our data and less about the specific name-brand programs used to create them.
Window 95 plug-and-play capability makes it easy to upgrade your computer hardware. And portable computer users will like what Microsoft has done to make their lives calmer.
A new Windows shortcuts capability makes it easy to reach frequently used files and other necessities. A new Find feature helps you to locate and examine the contents of files in a flash.
Most of this is accomplished without sacrificing performance. In fact, many things (like printing) usually happen faster now, due to 32-bit support and other Windows 95 advancements.
to interact — взаимодействовать
to accomplish — выполнять, достигать
weapon — оружие
to replace — замещать
Recycle Bin — корзина
to crash — ломаться, давать сбои
to remove — удалять
co-workers — коллеги, сослуживцы
to plug — подключать
frequently — часто
support — поддержка
necessity — необходимость
flash — вспышка,зд. in a flash — моментально
to give smth. a thought — подумать о чем- либо
brand-name — торговая марка
calm — спокойный
shortcut — кратчайший путь
to sacrifice — жертвовать
advancement— прогресс, продвижение
1) What is Windows 95?
2) What new principles are used in Windows 95?
3) What is a Recycle Bin feature?
4) What problems has Windows 95 solved?
5) Is it possible to run old DOS programs under Windows 95?
6) What is a «plug-n-play» capability?
7) What is a «shortcut» capability?
8) What is a «Find» feature?
9) Why many things work faster now with Windows95?
Exercise 9.4. Which of the listed above statements are true/false. Specify your answer using the text.
1) An «icon» is graphical image that represents file and its type.
2) Second button is not used in Windows 95 because most people use 1-button mouse.
3) There are no similarities between Macintosh and Windows 95 desktop tools.
4) Windows 95 has some tools which help to communicate with other people through computer network.
5) It's no longer possible to use MS-DOS commands and run MS-DOS files.
6) Microsoft corporation is oriented to produce as many programs as needed to meet people needs and make them buy specific brand- name products.
7) New plug-n-play capability is for those who like to play computer games 24 hours a day and seven days a week.
8) A new shortcut feature is used to cut long programs very short to save disk space.
9) New Find feature helps you to locate the contents of files.
10) It must be mentioned that all new Windows features are possible only because of the low level of performance and quality.
Exercise 9.5. Find the equivalents in the text:
1) Ваш компьютер вероятно будет давать меньше сбоев с Виндоуз 95, чем с более ранними версиями и даже ДОС.
2) Корпорация Майкрософт заявляет, что она делает все для того, чтобы приблизить время, когда мы все будем думать больше о наших данных, чем о конкретных «фирменных» программах, которые используются для создания этих данных.
3) Новая функция поиска позволяет обнаружить местоположение и исследовать содержимое файла в мгновение ока.
4) Большинство этих функций достигнута в ущерб производительности.
5) ДОС, каким мы его знаем, так хорошо запрятан, что вы редко думаете о его использовании.
6) В Виндоуз 95 существует инструмент Корзина, который позволяет легко восстанавливать случайно удаленные файлы.
7) Инструменты Рабочего Стола очень схож с инструментами Макинтоша.
8) Вторая кнопка мыши стала мощным оружием.
Exercise 9.6. What is:
3) recycle bin
4) plug-and-play capability
5) shortcut feature
Exercise 9.7. Practice:
1) Start Windows 95. Empty the Recycle Bin. See the free diskspace on drives A and C. See the catalgue of disk C.
2) Resize, maximize and minimize the window. Close the window. Move it, holding the left button.
3) Create a folder COMPUTER. Copy any 2 filesinto it. Rename the folder. Delete two files into the Recycle Bin then recover them. Delete the whole folder.
4) Create a textual file in WordPad program. Save it as TEXT. Rename it as MYFILE. Create a shortcut for it. Put the shortcut on the DeskTOP.
5) Create a picture in Paintbrush program. Save it as MYPICTURE. Create folder PICTURES. Copy file MYPICTURE to the PICTURES folder.
6) QUIT Windows 95.
Questions for group discussion:
1) What are the poor features of Windows 95?
2) Computer society thinks, that Intel company, the most powerful CPU producer, has an agreement with Microsoft corporation that the latter will develop more and more sophisticated, large and demanding software to force users to buy new processors and upgrade their computers. Do you think this might be true? How does this suggestion correlate with the new Windows 2000 and Microsoft Office 2000? Do you think that Bill Gates' monopoly on Windows operating systems is very dangerous for the competition and price-making process?
3) Ask anyone in the group who has a computer if Windows 98 is better than Windows 2000? Why and why not?
Text C: «INTRODUCTION TO THE WWW AND THE INTERNET»
Millions of people around the world use the Internet to search for and retrieve information on all sorts of topics in a wide variety of areas including the arts, business, government, humanities, news, politics and recreation. People communicate through electronic mail (e-mail), discussion groups, chat channels and other means of informational exchange. They share information and make commercial and business transactions. All this activity is possible because tens of thousands of networks are connected to the Internet and exchange information in the same basic ways.
TheWorld Wide Web (WWW) is a part of the Internet. But it's not a collection of networks. Rather, it is information that is connected or linked together like a web. You access this information through one interface or tool called a Web browser. The number of resources and services that are part of the World Wide Web is growing extremely fast. In 1996 there were more than 20 million users of the WWW, and more than half the information that is transferred across the Internet is accessed through the WWW. By using a computer terminal (hardware) connected to a network that is a part of the Internet, and by using a program (software) to browse or retrieve information that is a part of the World Wide Web, the people connected to the Internet and World Wide Web through the local providers have access to a variety of information. Each browser provides a graphical interface. You move from place to place, from site to site on the Web by using a mouse to click on a portion of text, icon or region of a map. These items are called hyperlinks or links. Each link you select represents a document, an image, a video clip or an audio file somewhere on the Internet. The user doesn't need to know where it is, the browser follows the link.
All sorts of things are available on the WWW. One can use Internet for recreational purposes. Many TV and radio stations broadcast live on the WWW. Essentially, if something can be put into digital format and stored in a computer, then it's available on the WWW. You can even visit museums, gardens, cities throughout the world, learn foreign languages and meet new friends. And, of course, you can play computer games through WWW, competing with partners from other countries and continents.
Just a little bit of exploring the World Wide Web will show you what a lot of use and fun it is.
World Wide Web — «Всемирная Паутина»
to retrieve — извлекать
variety — разнообразие, спектр
recreation — развлечение
network — сеть
to share — делить
humanities — гуманитарные науки
business transactions — коммерческие операции
access — доступ
to browse — рассматривать, разглядывать
browser— браузер (программа поиска информации)
to provide — обеспечивать (чем-либо)
provider — провайдер (компания, предоставляющая доступ к WWW через местные телефонные сети)
broadcast live — передавать в прямом эфире site — страница, сайт
to link — соединять
hyperlink — гиперссылка
to compete — соревноваться
1) What is Internet used for?
2) Why so many activities such as e-mail and business transactions are possible through the Internet?
3) What is World Wide Web?
4) What is Web browser?
5) What does a user need to have an access to the WWW?
6) What are hyperlinks?
7) What resources are available on the WWW?
8) What are the basic recreational applications of WWW?
Exercise 9.8. Which of the listed below statements are true/false. Specify your answer using the text.
1) There are still not so many users of the Internet.
2) There is information on all sorts of topics on the Internet, including education and weather forecasts.
3) People can communicate through e-mail and chat programs only.
4) Internet is tens of thousands of networks which exchange the information in the same basic way.
5) You can access information available on the World Wide Web through the Web browser.
6) You need a computer (hardware) and a special program (software) to be a WWW user.
7) You move from site to site by clicking on a portion of text only.
8) Every time the user wants to move somewhere on the 'eh he/she needs to step by step enter links and addresses.
9) Films and pictures are not available on the Internet.
10) Radio and TV-broadcasting is a future of Internet. They're not available yet.
Exercise 9.9. Define the following using the vocabulary:
2) World Wide Web
3) Web browser
4) Internet provider
Exercise 9.10. Find the equivalents:
1) Объем ресурсов и услуг, которые являются частью WWW, растет чрезвычайно быстро.
2) Каждая ссылка, выбранная вами представляет документ, графическое изображение, видеоклип или аудио файл где-то в Интернет.
3) Интернет может быть также использован для целей развлечения.
4) Вы получаете доступ к ресурсам Интернет через интерфейс или инструмент, который называется веб-браузер.
5) Вся эта деятельность возможна благодаря десяткам тысяч компьютерных сетей, подключенных к Интернет и обменивающихся информацией в одном режиме.
6) Пользователи общаются через электронную почту, дискуссионные группы, чэт-каналы (многоканальный разговор в реальном времени) и другие средства информационного обмена.
Exercise 9.11. Match the following:
1) You access the information through one interface or tool called a...
2) People connected to the WWW through the local... have access to a variety of information.
3) The user doesn't need to know where the site is, the... follows the...
4) In 1996 there were more than 20 million users of the...
5) Each... provides a graphical interface.
6) Local... charge money for their services to access... resources.
Words to match with:
1) web browser, providers, link, WWW,
Questions for group discussion:
1) Some people think that Internet is very harmful, especially for young people, because it carries a lot of information about sex, drugs, violence and terrorism. Do you think that some kind of censorship is necessary on the WWW?
2) World famous authors and publishers say that the Internet violates their copyright because Web-programmers put all kinds of books, pictures, music, films and programs free on the Internet and this reduces their sales and profits.
3) Has anyone in your group experience working on the Internet? Ask them 1) about the difficulties they had; 2) useful information retrieved; 3) fun they got? Why so few people have experience working on the Internet?