ТЕОРЕТИЧЕСКИЕ ВОПРОСЫ ДЛЯ САМОКОНТРОЛЯ
1 Stylistics. Main styles and substyles
2 Stylistic classification of the English vocabulary: obsolete, archaic words, historisms, neologisms
3 Stylistic classification of the English vocabulary: barbarisms, terms, slang, jargonisms, professionalisms, dialectal words
4 Stylistic classification of the English vocabulary: neutral, colloquial, literary coinages, poetic, vulgarisms
5 Phonetic Expressive means: onomatopoeia
6 Phonetic Expressive means: alliteration, assonance
7 Rhyme, types of rhyme
8 Bathos and Irony
9 Different types of lexical meaning
10 Metaphor, types
12 Polysemy, pun and zeugma
13 Epithet, types
14 Oxymoron and antonomasia
15Simile and periphrasis
16 Hyperbole and meiosis
17 Euphemism and litotes
18 Allegory and personification
19Allusion and decomposition of set phrases
20 Inversion, types
21 Parallel construction and chiasmus
22 Repetition and anadiplosis
23 Enumeration and climax
24 Antithesis, asyndeton, polysyndeton
25Graphical means and graphon
26 Functional Style: general definition, main styles
27 Belles-lettres styles: characteristic features and substyles
28 The language of poetry
29 Emotive prose
30 The Drama
31 Publicistic style: characteristic features and substyles
32 Oratory speeches, the Essay, Journalistic article
33Scientific Prose: characteristic features and substyles
34 The Style of official documents: characteristic features and substyles
35 Newspaper style: characteristic features and substyles
36 Brief news item
37 The headline
38 The Editorial
Stylistics. Main styles and substyles.
Stylistics is a branch of general linguistics, that studies the various functional styles of speech and also the various expressive means and devises of language. The types of texts that are distinguished by the pragmatic aspect of the communication are called functional styles of language (FS); the special media of language which secure the desirable effect of the utterance are called stylistic devices (SD) and expressive means (EM).
Academician Vinogradov the first described the difference types of speech in respect to their functions.
The colloquial typeof the language, Which has the function of communication. It is characteristic of the situation of direct communication more bookish styles. Official, scientific and publicist are used in situation of indirect communications.
Galperin maintains that there are 5 styles in English.
Belle-lettres 2 publicist 3 newspaper 4 scientific prose 5 style of official documents
Each styles is subdivided into a number of substyles.
1) Belle-lettres is subdivided into 1) style of poetry, 2) S. of emotive prose , 3)drama,
2) Publicisticstyle is divided into 1) oratory 2) essay 3) style of feature articles in newspaper and journals.
3) scientific prose is divided into 1) humanitarian sciences, 2) exact science prose 3) of popular scientific prose
4) style of official documents is subdivided into 1) of diplomatic documents, 2) of business documents,3) style of legal documents 4) of military documents.
5) Newspaper S. is subdivided into 1) of brief new items and communiqués, 2) of notices and advertisements.
Style is a set of characteristics by which we distinguish one author from another or members of one subclass from members of other subclasses, all of which are members-of the same general class
Stylistic classification of the English vocabulary: obsolete, archaic words, historisms, neologisms
The word-stock of a language is in an increasing state of change. Words change their meaning and sometimes drop out of the language altogether. In every period in the development of a literary language one can find words which will show more or less apparent changes in their meaning or usage.
We shall distinguish three stages in the aging process of words:
The beginning of the aging process when the word becomes rarely used. Such words are called obsolescent, i.e. they are in the stage of gradually passing out of general use. To this category first of all belong morphological forms .belonging to the earlier stages in the development of the language. To the category of obsolescent words belong many French borrowings which have been kept in the literary language as a means of preserving the spirit of earlier periods, e. g. a pallet (=a straw mattress); a palfrey (=a small horse); garniture (^furniture); to emplume (^to adorn with feathers or plumes). - „
The second group of archaic words are those that have already gone completely out of use but are still recognized by the English-speaking community: e. g. methinks (=it seems to me); nay (=no). These words are called obsolete.
The third group, which may be called archaic proper, are words which are no longer recognizable in modern English, words that were in use in Old English and which have either dropped out of the language entirely or have changed in their appearance so much that they have become unrecognizable, e. g. troth (^faith); a losel (=a worthless, lazy fellow).
There is still another class of words which is erroneously classed as archaic, viz. historical words. By-gone periods in the life of any society are marked by historical events, and by institutions, customs, material objects, etc. which are no longer in use, for example: Thane, yeoman, goblet, baldric, mace. Words of this type never disappear from the language. They are historical terms and remain as terms referring to definite stages in the development of society and cannot therefore be dispensed with, though the things and phenomena to which they refer have long -passed into oblivion. Historical words have no synonyms, whereas archaic words have been replaced by modern synonyms.
Archaic words are primarily and predominantly used in the creation of a realistic background to historical novels
This, the main function of archaisms, finds different interpretation in different novels by different writers.
Neologism are word that have recently come into the language and are stilled held as new. The coining of new words generally arises first of all with the need to designate new concepts resulting from the development of science and also with the need to express nuances of meaning called forth by a deeper understanding of the nature of the phenomenon in question. It may also be the result of a search for a more economical, brief and compact form of utterance which proves to be a more expressive means of communicating the idea.