Shakespeare “The Tragedy of Hamlet” (Translated into Russian by Lozinsky)




Hamlet’s soliloquy “To be or not to be”

Early New English sentence Modern English translation Form of the infinitive Function of the infinitive Russian translation Transfor-mation technique
1. To be*, or not to be**, that is the question:   To live*, or to die**? That is the question. * Indefinite Active ** Indefinite Active * Subject ** Subject ...Быть или не быть - таков вопрос; 100 % coincidence
2. Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer* The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune, Or to take** arms against a sea of troubles And by opposing end*** them Is it nobler to suffer* through all the terrible things fate throws at you, or to fight off** your troubles, and, in doing so, end*** them completely? * Indefinite Active ** Indefinite Active *** Indefinite Active   * Subject ** Subject *** Subject     Что благородней духом – покоряться* Пращам и стрелам яростной судьбы Иль, ополчась** на море смут, сразить*** их Противо-борством? * Grammatical. Syntactical. The replacement of sentence parts: Subject→ Predicate Lexical. Modulation. страдать→ покоряться ** Grammatical. Syntactical. The replacement of sentence parts: Subject→ Adverbial modifier of manner. The replacement of parts of speech: Infinitive→ «деепричастие» Lexical. Modulation. Отбиться от→ополчась *** Grammatical. Syntactical. The replacement of sentence parts: Subject→ Predicate Lexical. Modulation. Прикончить→ сразить
3. To die*—to sleep**, No more; and by a sleep to say*** we end The heart-ache and the thousand natural shocks That flesh is heir to: To die*, to sleep**—because that’s all dying is— and by a sleep I mean an end to all the heartache and the thousand injuries that we are vulnerable to * Indefinite Active ** Indefinite Active *** Indefinite Active   * Subject ** Subject *** Subject     Умереть*, уснуть** - И только; и сказать***, что сном кончаешь Тоску и тысячу природных мук, * 100 % coincidence ** 100 % coincidence *** 100 % coincidence    
4. 'tis a consummation Devoutly to be wish'd. that’s an end to be wished for! Indefinite Passive Attribute Как такой развязки Не жаждать? Grammatical. Morphological replacement. The replacement of a form of Infinitive: Passive→ Active  
5. To die*, to sleep**; To sleep***, perchance to dream****—ay, there's the rub: To die*, to sleep**. To sleep***, perhaps to dream****—yes, but there’s there’s the catch. * Indefinite Active ** Indefinite Active *** Indefinite Active **** Indefinite Active * Subject ** Subject *** Subject **** Subject   Умереть*, уснуть**. – Уснуть***! И видеть сны****, быть может? * 100 % coincidence ** 100 % coincidence *** 100 % coincidence **** 100 % coincidence
6. For in that sleep of death what dreams may come,   Because the kinds of dreams that might come in that sleep of death Indefinite Active Part of a com-pound verbal predicate Какие сны приснятсяв смертном сне, Grammatical. Morphological replacement. The replacement of a part of speech: Infinitive→ Finite verb form
7. When we have shuffled off this mortal coil, Must give us pause—there's the respect That makes calamity of so long life.   After you have left behind your mortal body— are something to make you anxious. That’s the consideration that makes us suffer the calamities of life for so long. Indefinite Active Part of a com-pound verbal predicate Когда мы сбросим этот бренный шум, - Вот что сбивает нас; вот где причина Того, что бедствия так долговечны; Grammatical. Morphological replacement. The replacement of a part of speech: Infinitive→ Finite verb form Lexical. Modulation. Давать паузу→ Сбивать
8 8. For who would bear the whips and scorns of time,   Because who would bear all the trials and tribulations of time Indefinite Active Part of a com-pound verbal predicate Кто снес бы плети и глумленье века, Grammatical. Morphological replacement. The replacement of a part of speech: Infinitive→ Finite verb form
9 9. When he himself might his quietus make* With a bare bodkin? Who would fardels bear**, To grunt*** and sweat**** under a weary life,   When you could just settle* all your debts using nothing more than an unsheathed dagger? Who would bear** his burdens, and grunt*** and sweat****through a tiring life * Indefinite Active ** Indefinite Active *** Indefinite Active **** Indefinite Active * Part of a com-pound verbal predicate ** Part of a com-pound verbal predicate *** Adver-bial modifier of purpose **** Adver-bial modifier of purpose   Когда б он сам мог дать* себе расчет Простым кинжалом? Кто бы плелся** с ношей, Чтоб охать*** и потеть**** под нудной жизнью, * Lexical. Modulation. Покончить жизнь само-убийством→ Дать расчет самому себе ** Grammatical. Morphological replacement. The replacement of a part of speech: Infinitive→ Finite verb form Lexical. Modulation. Нести ношу→ Плелся с ношей. *** 100 % coincidence **** 100 % coincidence
And makes us rather bear those ills we have Than fly to others that we know not of?   Which we wonder about and which makes us prefer the troubles we know rather than fly off   Indefinite Active Complex Object Внушая нам терпетьневзгоды наши И не спешить к другим, от нас сокрытым? 100 % coincidence

Cases of the Infinitive

The Participle

Early New English sentence Modern English translation Form of the participle Function of the participle Russian translation Trans-formation technique
1 1. The pangs of dispriz'dlove, the law's delay,   The pangs of unrequited love, the slowness of justice, Participle II   Attribute Боль презреннойлюбви, судей медливость, Grammatical. Morphological replacement. The replacement of a part of speech: Participle II→ Adjective Lexical. Modulation. Осуждаемый→ презренный
22. The undiscovere'dcountry, from whose bourn No traveller returns, puzzles the will,     That undiscoveredcountry from which no visitor returns, which we wonder about and which makes us Participle II   Attribute Безвестныйкрай, откуда нет возврата Земным скитальцам, - волю не смущал, Grammatical. Morphological replacement. The replacement of a part of speech: Participle II→ Adjective
33. Is sicklied o'er with the pale cast of thought, And enterprises of great pitch and moment     Willingness to act is madeweak by too much thinking. Actions of great urgency and importance Participle II   Part of a predicative Хиреет под налетом мысли бледным, И начинанья, взнесшиеся мощно, Grammatical. Morphological replacement. The replacement of a part of speech: Participle II→ Finite verb form Syntactical. The replacement of sentence parts: Part of a predicative→ Predicate

The Gerund

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