Упр. 1. Отработайте чтение следующих слов:
[о:] hydraulic, authority, automobile, Australia, August, launch but gauge [geid3], laugh [la:f], aunt[a:nt], mauve[mouv]
Упр.2. Прочитайте текст.
The term "engineering" is a modern one. The New Merriam- Webster Dictionary gives the explanation of the word "engineering" as the practical application of scientific and mathematical principles.
Nowadays the term "engineering" means, as a rule, the art of designing, constructing, or using engines. But this word is now applied *in a more extended sense.1 It is applied also to the art of executing such works as the objects of civil and military architecture, in which engines or other mechanical appliances are used. Engineering is divided into many branches. The most important of them are: civil, mechanical, electrical, nuclear, mining, military, marine, and sanitary engineering.
While the definition "civil engineering " dates back only two centuries, the profession of civil engineer is as old as civilized life. It started developing with the rise of ancient Rome. In order to understand clearly what civil engineering constitutes nowadays, let us consider briefly the development of different branches of engineering. Some form of building and utilization of the materials and forces of nature have always been necessary for the people from the prehistoric times. The people had to protect themselves against the elements and sustain themselves in the conflict with nature.
First the word "civil engineering" was used to distinguish the work of the engineer with a non-military purpose from that of a military engineer. And up to about the middle of the 18th century there were two main branches of engineering — civil and military. The former included all those branches of the constructive art not directly connected with military operations and the constructions of fortifications, while the latter, military engineering, concerned itself
Упр.3. Переведите слова, обращая внимание на суффиксы и префиксы.
military — non-military — militarization; enumerate — enumeration; decide — decision—decision-maker; invent — inventor—invention; apply — appliance — application; explain — explanatory — explanation; build — builder — building —rebuilt; achieve — achievement; construct — constructor—construction — constructive—reconstruct
Упр.4. Прочитайте и переведите интернациональные слова.
start [sta:t] mechanism principle [prinsipl] architecture energy material form [fo:m] construction element mechanics [mi'kaeniks] economics mathematics
thermodynamics communication utilization fortification application
Упр.5. Ответьте на вопросы.
1. What does the word "engineering" mean?
2. Is engineering a science?
3. Into what branches is Civil engineering divided?
4. How old is the profession of a civil engineer?
5. What distinct meanings has the term "civil engineering"?
6. What fields of Civil engineering do you know?
7. What are the most important branches of Civil engineering?
8. What invention laid the foundation for mechanical engineers?
9. When was electrical engineering developed?
10. What are the main subdivisions of the electrical engineering?
Упр.6 Образуйте множественное число существительных.
branch, tooth, service, century, key, hero, ox, opportunity, engineer, ship, man, earning, county, roof, sheep, business, town, structure, deer, woman, leaf, tornado, mouse, still life, engine, warning, salary, profession, force, meaning, discovery.
Упр.7. Раскройте скобки, поставив глагол в Present Indefinite.
1. Our group (to go) to the discotheque tonight.
2. We (to get) books from the library next week.
3. We (not to go) to the park in the evening.
4. He (to show) us his report yesterday.
5. My friend (to speak) good English.
6. He (not to pronounce) the given word correctly.
7. This student (to translate) many English texts a year ago.
8. They (to know) this theoretical material pretty well.
9. Will you (to travel) to the Crimea or to the Caucasus?
10. It (to be) possible or impossible for you to get to the university in 5 minutes?
11. They (not to know) the words properly.
12. Our family (not to travel) to the Crimea last year.
Упр.8. Переведите на русский язык.
1. The ancient Greeks put a high premium on building skills.
2. The Babylonians of 1800 B.C. hammered out their messages on stone tablets.
3. He will graduate from the university in five years.
4. Construction business also has lots of competition.
5.1 hope she will be back from her trip to Europe next week.
6. The Brooklyn Bridge was remarkable not only for the first use of the pneumatic caisson but also the introduction of steel wire.
7. Architecturally, Venice is very beautiful.
8. I'll take care of this matter personally.
9. Are you going to work as a civil engineer in five years?
10. Many centuries ago man learned to shape clay into blocks.
11. The Twelve Apostles are high rocks in the sea area of Australia.
12. A lot of various modern materials are widely used in civil engineering now.