|brokerage firm of (slock) brokers||брокерское вознаграждение, комиссионные брокера|
|brokerage house (US||брокерская фирма|
|commercial bank||коммерческий банк|
|credit union||кредитный союз|
|disbursement||выплата в порядке погашения|
|exchange equalization||валютный уравнительный|
|fiduciary finance||доверенное лицо, фидуциар финансовая компания|
|company lend (v)||ссужать, давать взаймы, одалживать|
|lending institution||кредитное учреждение|
|national bank||национальный банк|
|savings and loan Association (US)||ссудно-еберегательная ассоциация|
|security, securities||ценные бумаги|
|state bank||государственный банк|
|stock exchange||фондовая биржа|
|scrutiny subscribe (v)||подписываться на ч.-л., приобретать по подписке|
|United States Treasury (Department)||казначейство, министерство финансов|
|to some extent||в какой-то мере, до какой-либо степени|
|trust company||- трастовая компания|
Ex.1 Read the text
The reason for which the Bank of England was founded in 1694 was to look after the Government's debt, commonly called the National Debt, and this is still a most important function. A large proportion of the debt is made up of Government bonds, that is pieces of paper stating that the holder has subscribed such-and-such a sum of money and is entitled to so much interest per year. Two world wars have helped to swell the issue of bonds to some $,40,000 million. Another sizable slice of debt is in the form of Treasury bills which are rather like bonds with a very short life span before the Government buys them back again and so repays the loan. Their purpose is to provide the government with day-to-day money to cover the inevitable gaps which occur between its disbursements, e.g. on such things as unemployment benefit and its receipts from taxation. A third type of debt is the group of National Savings Securities, of which ordinary Post Office (now National Savings Bank) accounts and Premium Bonds are perhaps the best-known examples.
The Bank of England is the ultimate source from which the general public can obtain cash. Other English banks used to issue their own notes, but now they all use the Bank of England notes. Scottish banks have continued to issue their own, hut it is an expensive undertaking, and is closely controlled by the central bank in England.
The Bank also looks after the bank account of the Government just like an ordinary bank does for its customers. Into this account go all tax receipts and/any other transfers of money from the various banks, and out of it go all payments. Because all the important institutions in the City maintain accounts al the Bank, transfers of money between them and the Government, which go on every day, are made very easily. The Bank merely debits one account and credits another. The Bank also holds accounts for important international institutions like the World Bank, for just over a hundred central banks and also for some ordinary foreign banks, making a total of nearly two hundred accounts.
The Exchange Equalization Account is the name of the fund in which are held the gold and foreign currency reserves of the country. The managers of the fund have the task of intervening from time to time in the otherwise free market for foreign currency, so as to influence the price of the pound in line with Government policy, or simply to try to maintain a reasonably orderly market.
The pound is not the only currency whose price has to be carefully controlled. Most of the major world currencies have the same problems, and all greatly benefit from international cooperation. Dealing with other central banks and managing money on an international scale has an important side of the Bank's work. Every month the Governor (lies to Basle to spend a week-end in conference with his opposite numbers from the central banks of other western industrial countries.
The object of the Bank's management in the monetary field is to support the Government's activities in other fields, e.g. taxation policy, export promotion and so on. The methods of control used by the Bank are based on a system in which money available to be borrowed should be rationed by price, not by orders from the Bank or The Treasury.
The battery of instruments of control the Bank has may be summarized as follows:
1. Suggestion and request.From time to time the Bank will make suggestions to the other institutions in the City, indicating the policy the authorities intend to pursue. If they want specific action, the Government makes a "request" like the following:
"Notice to banks. All banks and finance houses are asked not to provide either loan to persons or check trading facilities for the purchase of..."
2. Open market operations.This is the name given to the activities of the Bank in the financial markets for control purposes. The point is that by its interventions the Bank can influence markets to move in the directions which it desires.
3. Special deposits and supplementary deposits.From time to time, the Government may wish to reduce the amount of money that people can borrow in order to reduce the amount they spend. An effective way of doing this is 10 reduce what the banks have available for lending, and this is done by requiring them to deposit more money at the Bank of England in special accounts from which it cannot be withdrawn until the Bank says so.
Ex.2 Answer questions on the text:
1. Why and when was the Bank of England founded?
2. What type of securities make up the National Debt?
3. What is the money raised in this way spent on?
4.Enumerate the most important functions of the Bank of England.
5.What is the object of a central bank's management in the monetary field?
6. What principle does the Bank of England follow in exercising its control over the monetary policy?
7.What instruments of control has the Bank got at its disposal ?
Ex 3 Say what is true and what is false. Correct the false sentences:
1. Commercial bank's services are limited.
2. Fiduciary services are handled by trust companies.
3. Commercial banks don't deal with brokerage services!
4. American stale banks offer fewer services than a national bank.
5. The interest on deposits is usually higher in savings and loan associations.
6. Savings and loan associations offer regular commercial services.
7. Every English bank issues its own notes.
8.All the important institutions in the City maintain accounts at the Bank of England.
9.The amount of money available for British borrowers depends on The Treasury orders.
Ex.4 Complete the following:
1. We remit money orders.
a) A person who remits is a......
b) A person to whom the money order is remitted is a
2. We transfer bank drafts.........................
a) A person who transfers them is a......
b) A person to whom they are transferred is a.....
3You draw out a cheque.
a) A person who draws a cheque is a......
b)The bank on which the cheque is drawn is a.......
A person to whom the cheque is made payable is a
4. One can pledge assets as security.
a) A person who pledges assets as security is a
b) A person to whom assets are pledged is a
5. Loans are granted.
a) A person who grants a loan is a...
b) A person to whom a loan is granted is a.
Ex.5 Combine the words listed below into meaningful two or three word expressions as possible:
Ex.6 For each of the following phrases, find the expression in the text that explains it:
1.restricted range of services
2. services having to do with trusts and estates
3. services having to do with buying and selling securities
4. bank which gels its charter from the slate
5. stocks and bonds
6, a place where stocks are bought and sold
7. The fund in which the gold foreign currency reserves of Great Britain are held
8. Bonds with a very short life span before the government buys them back again
9. Economic policy which regulates the level of money or liquidity
Ex.7 Demonstrate the meaning of the following expressions № sentences of your own:
1. to handle transactions
2. to be a party to a transaction
3. to manage the estate
4. to make loans for the purchase of
5. to borrow money from
6. to get a loan from
7. to charge a higher/lower rate of interest
8. to discuss some fiduciary matters
9. to provide the government with
10. to cover the gap between
11. to maintain an orderly market
12. to be the subject to scrutiny by