HOW COMPUTER VIRUSES WORK





I. Read the text. Translate it into Russian. Put 7 questions of different types to it. Write out a) verbs in passive, b) modal verbs with the meaningful verbs.

HOW COMPUTER VIRUSES WORK

Computer virus is a program which is designed to copy itself into other programs, with the intention of causing mischief or damage. A virus will usually execute when it is loaded into a computer's memory.

A properly engineered virus can have a devastating effect, disrupting productivity and doing billions of dollars in damages. For example, experts estimate that the Mydoom worm infected approximately a quarter-million computers in a single day in January 2004. Back in March 1999, the Melissa virus forced Microsoft and some other very large companies to completely turn off their e-mail systems until the virus could be contained. The ILOVEYOU virus in 2000 had a similarly devastating effect. In January 2007, a worm called Storm appeared - by October, experts believed up to 50 million computers were infected.

The most common forms of electronic infection are:

  • Viruses: A virus is a small piece of software that piggybacks on real programs. For example, a virus might attach itself to a program such as a spreadsheet program. Each time the spreadsheet program runs, the virus runs, too, and it has the chance to reproduce (by attaching to other programs) or wreak havoc.
  • E-mail viruses: An e-mail virus travels as an attachment to e-mail messages, and usually replicates itself by automatically mailing itself to dozens of people in the victim's e-mail address book.
  • Trojan horses: A Trojan horseis a computer program which claims to do one thing (it may claim to be a game) but instead does damage when you run it (it may erase your hard disk).
  • Worms: A worm is a small piece of software that uses computer networks and security holes to replicate itself. A copy of the worm scans the network for another machine that has a specific security hole. It copies itself to the new machine using the security hole, and then starts replicating from there, as well.

 

II. Choose the correct verb in brackets. Define the tense forms, voice of the chosen verbs. Translate the sentences into Russian. - Выберите подходящую форму глагола. Определите видовременную форму и залог выбранных глаголов. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. Websites (are being optimized/are optimizing) to cope with slow internet speeds.

2. Business users (find/are found) that although a tablet is useful for surfing websites, writing short emails, watching films and listening to music, it is not so useful for writing long texts, and doing other office activities.

3. Wikipedia's mobile site (has reached/has been reached) more than 3 billion page views per month.

4. Although a computer can do many things, it cannot think. A human operator has to instruct the computer what to do with the data it receives. Such instructions (are called/call) a program.

5. Chemists and physicists (are used/use) computers to control and check sensitivelaboratory instruments and to analyze experimental data.

6. Users have (to read/to be read) lists of words slowly into the computer.

7. Personal computers (made/were made) possible by two technical innovations in the field of microelectronics: the integrated circuit (IC) which (is developed/was developed) in 1959 and the microprocessor that first (was appeared/appeared) in 1971.

 

III. Complete the sentences below using the following verbs in the passive. Translate the sentences:

(Model: The printers ……… three weeks late. (deliver)

The printers were delivered three weeks late.

Принтеры доставили на три недели позже.)

 

1. The information............. by the computer. (process)

2. The machine.............. by a small electric motor. (power)

3. A month ago a network of service centres …………….. to take care of installation and maintenance. (introduce)

4. The machine.............. for measuring levels of static electricity. (use)

5. The plans for the new aircraft …………….. by a competitor. (steal)

6. The problems with the hard disk ….. by a faulty connection. (cause)

7. The first PCs …. in the middle of 20th century. (invent)

 

IV. Choose the correct modal verb/phrase in italics.Translate the sentences from English into Russian paying attention to the meaning of modal verb. –Выберите подходящий модальный глагол/фразу. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на значение модальных глаголов.

 

1 (Could/need) you give me the new password?

2 You (mustn’t / aren’t permitted) to disconnect the keyboard.

3 You (mustn’t / may) put your cup of coffee on the computer.

4 You (not allowed / shouldn’t) use your date of birth as a password.

5 He (ought to/can) have come to the meeting. It was interesting.

6 You (may/should) have an antivirus programme on your computer.

7 You (have /could) to close the database before you can open the word processor package.

8 We (need to / might) have a virus in the system.

9 My computer is rather old and slow. – You (should/may) upgrade the whole system.

 

V. In this passage about the use of computers in business you must fill each blank with one word. Choose each word from the following list. You must use each word once only.- прочитайте текст, заполните пробелы словами из таблицы.

 

accurate input printer screen
components keyboard modem single
continuous linked records supplies
floppy output retrieve transactions

USING COMPUTERS

Computers are being used more and more in business because they are fast, efficient and 1………… .

Here are some ways in which computers are used:

Insurance companies use them to store and 2 ………… details of clients' policies.

Production departments in companies use them to ensure they have adequate

3 ………… of raw materials and 4………….. .

Banks use them for processing details of accounts and 5 ……………….. .

Personnel departments use them to keep 6 …………… of a company's employees.

Can you think of any other ways in which computers are used?

The most common ways in which you can 7 …………… information into a computer are:

- by typing it on a 8.........

- from a 9.............. disk

- by 10............. over a telephone link.

- from another computer 11...... to yours.

A computer can 12.......... information:

- on a 13............ called a VDU (visual display unit),

- to a 14............ which may use 15....... ……. sheets or 16 ……… stationery,

- to a floppy disk,

-to another computer.

 

VI. Choose the correct word to complete each sentence. You may have to change some words slightly. – заполните пробелы подходящими по смыслу словами, добавляя нужные окончания, если необходимо.

1. applying, applicant, application, applicable

a) We have interviewed five ________________ for the new position.

b) The last part of the form is not __________ to foreign students.

2. corrected, correctly, corrective, correctness

a) If an error occurs, it is important to take ____________ action immediately.

b) The 'spell check' facility checks the __________ of your spelling.

3. instruction, instruct, instructed, instructor

a) Our maths __________ explained to us the principles of binary arithmetic.

b) We were _____________ to document our programs very carefully.

4. compute, computerized, computerization

a) The_________ of the manufacturing division will be expensive in the short term, but cost-effective in the long term.

b) We should be able to ______________ our profit for next year fairly accurately with the new program.

5. impression, impressive, unimpressed

a) It's important to create a good __________ when meeting clients.

b) The results from our new French subsidiary are very ___________ .

VII. Choose the correct words in italics. Translate the sentences. – выберите подходящее слово. Переведите предложения.

1...... I (switched /installed) the computer off yesterday.

2...... Today I can’t (turn/plug) it on again.

3 I checked all the cable connections – they were (solved / plugged) in correctly.

4 Luckily, I (saved /disconnected) all my files onto a flash drive. So I can use another computer today.

5 Customers are not satisfied with this website as it is very slow and (installs/crashes) sometimes.

6 Some websites are easier to navigate/plug than others.

7 You need to (attract / retrieve) the data from the database.

8 How many people can (access / burn) the information at the same time?

9 You must have a (gateway / firewall) to stop cyber attacks.

 

 

VIII. Complete these sentences with the words in the box. – Заполните пропуски подходящими словами.

design internet maintained navigation provides blog webmasters used commercial

 

There are several types of websites on the (1) ____________, many offering different things. For example, a (2) ____________ website sells products or services. These types of website are (3) ____________ for promoting a business or service and are the most common type of website. When you (4) ____________ a commercial website, it is important to make sure that your visitors can move around easily in your site. Poor (5) ____________ makes it difficult for people to find what they are looking for and they will leave.

A news website (6) ____________ information about current events and opinions. This kind of website should also encourage feedback from its visitors. In fact, many blogs are just a news site that covers current events and the views of the (7) ____________ and visitors. A personal website is a website (8) __________ by an individual for personal use. Though similar to a (9) __________, a personal website is usually much larger and contains the personal interests, hobbies, etc. of the person controlling the website.

 

IX. Read these texts. Are the sentences true (T) or false (F)? – Прочитайте тексты. Обозначьте утверждения верно – Т, неверно - F.

 

Range

Wireless networks have limited range. Network range depends on the type of 802.11 protocol, the strength of the device transmitter and the architecture of the surrounding area. Some structures such as walls and metal frames reduce the range of a WLAN by 25%. However, users can extend the range of a WLAN. Repeaters forward the wireless signal to access points or routers and increase the range of a network.

 

Speed

Bandwith and latency are the measures of computer network speed, or data transfer rate. Bandwidth is the maximum throughput of date in bits per second. Some modems support 100 Gbit/s but speed depends on the hardware and software used. Latency is the delay that network creates during the transfer of data. Users have no or very little control over bandwidth and latency.

 

1 Wireless networks don’t have a wide range. ( T / F )

2 Network range depends on different factors. ( T / F )

3 Walls and metal frames can increase the range of a WLAN. ( T / F )

4 It’s possible to increase the range of a WLAN. ( T / F )

5 Data transfer rate is measured in bandwidth and latency. ( T / F )

6 The minimum throughput of data in bits per second is the latency. ( T / F )

7 Speed depends only on the hardware used. ( T / F )

8 Users can control the latency. ( T / F )

 





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