Computer science department
LEXICAL - GRAMMAR TEST №2
Study the following grammar to do the lexical-grammar test - для правильного выполнения контрольной работы №2 необходимо усвоить следующий грамматический материал:
1. Tense forms of the Verb.(Active Voice and Passive Voice). Regular and irregular verbs. - Видовременные формы глагола (действительный и страдательный залог). Правильные и неправильные глаголы.
2. Modal verbs and their equivalents - модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты.
3. Types of questions (revision). – типы вопросов (повторение).
4. Word formation. – словообразование.
I. Read the text. Translate it into Russian. Put 7 questions of different types to it. Write out a) verbs in passive, b) modal verbs with the meaningful verbs.
Computer networks link computers by communication lines and software protocols, allowing data to be exchanged rapidly and reliably. Traditionally, networks have been split between wide area networks (WANs) and local area networks (LANs). A WAN is a network connected over long distance telephone lines, and a LAN is a localized network usually in one building or a group of buildings close together. The distinction, however, is becoming blurred. It is now possible to connect up LANs remotely over telephone links so that they look as though they are a single LAN. Originally, networks were used to provide terminal access to another computer and to transfer files between computers. Today, networks carry e-mail, provide access to public databases and bulletin boards, and are beginning to be used for distributed systems. Networks also allow users in one locality to share expensive resources, such as printers and disk-systems.
Distributed computer systems are built using networked computers that co-operate to perform tasks. In this environment each part of the networked system does what it is best at. The high-quality bitmapped graphics screen of a personal computer or workstation provides a good user interface. The mainframe, on the other hand, can handle large numbers of queries and return the results to the users. In a distributed environment, a user might use his PC to make a query against a central database. The PC passes the query, written in a special language (e.g. Structured Query Language - SQL), to the mainframe, which then parses the query, returning to the user only the data requested. The user might then use his PC to draw graphs based on the data. By passing back to the user's PC only the specific information requested, network traffic is reduced. If the whole file were transmitted, the PC would then have to perform the query itself, reducing the efficiency of both network and PC.
In the 1980s, at least 100,000 LANs were set up in laboratories and offices around the world. During the early part of this decade, synchronous orbit satellites lowered the price of long-distance telephone calls, enabling computer data and television signals to be distributed more cheaply around the world. Since then, fibre-optic cable has been installed on a large scale, enabling vast amounts of data to be transmitted at a very high speed using light signals.
The impact of fibre optics will be considerably to reduce the price of network access. Global communication and computer networks will become more and more a part of professional and personal lives as the price of microcomputers and network access drops. At the same time, distributed computer networks should improve our work environments and technical abilities.
II. Read this summary of the text and fill in the gaps using the list of words below. – прочитайте краткое содержание текста и заполните пробелы словами из предложенных ниже.
Computer networks link computers locally or by external communication lines and software ________ , allowing data to be exchanged rapidly and reliably. The __________ between local area and wide area networks is, however, becoming unclear. Networks are being used to perform increasingly diverse tasks, such as carrying e-mail, providing access to public databases, and for ____________ . Networks also allow users in one locality to share resources.
Distributed systems use networked computers. PCs or ________________ provide the user _________ . Mainframes process _____________ and return the results to the users. A user at his PC might make a query against a central database. The PC passes the query, written in a special language, to the mainframe, which then ____________ the query, returning to the user only the data requested. This allows both the network and the individual PC to operate efficiently.
In the 1980s, at least 100,000 _________ were set up world-wide. As _________ orbit satellites have lowered the price of long-distance telephone calls, data can be transmitted more cheaply. In addition, _____________ cable has been installed on a large scale, enabling vast amounts of data to be transmitted at a very high speed using light signals. This will considerably reduce the price of network access, making global networks more and more a part of our professional and personal lives. Networks should also improve our work ______________ and technical abilities.
III. Rewrite these sentences using the passive. Define the tense form.
They delivered the printers three weeks late.
The printers were delivered three weeks late. (Past Simple, Passive Voice)
1. The company employed 200 people last month.
2. Careless drivers cause a lot accidents.
3. The suppliers will deliver the consignment of keyboards in 4 days.
4. The firm is not independent. A big company owns this firm.
5. I will have finished the work by the time you arrive home.
6. The situation is serious. We must do something before it’s too late.
7. They have built a new hospital near the airport.
8. The room looked nice. Someone had cleaned it.
9. The road is in very bad condition. They should have repaired it long ago.
10. The photocopier broke down and someone had to repair it.
11. They didn’t give me the money.
12. They are writing the project at the present moment.
13. They have postponed the concert.
14. Somebody was recording our conversation.
IV. Complete these sentences with SHOULD, CAN, COULD, MAY, MIGHT, NEED, MUST, HAVE TO.
1 My computer isn’t working. – You ____________ buy a new computer.
2 ___________ recommend an external hard drive?
3 The battery overheated. – You ____________ leave the laptop on charge all the time.
4 When you are developing a website, first you __________ discuss with the customer their requirements for the site to find out what they want. Secondly, you __________ to analyse the information you received. After that you ______________ develop a website specification.
5 I ________ not remember my password. – You __________ ask the administrator.
6 The solar box _____________ charge up to 100 phones a day.
7 You ____________ forget to back up the file.
8 I gave my password to a friend. – You ____________ give you password to another person.
9 They are very late. They ____________ have been here an hour ago.
10 The situation was bad but it __________ have been worse.
11 You _____________ to have written the letter of thanks 2 days ago.
12 Nowadays we _____________ use a lot of programs for free – from any computer all over the world.
13 __________ I use your car tomorrow?
14 I ___________ to take a taxi to be in time for the appointment.
15 They _________come to the party though I’m practically sure they won’t.
16 My father was a very clever man. He _________ speak 5 foreign languages.
V. Read the text. Which paragraph (A–E) says: - Прочитайте текст. В каком абзаце (А-Е) говорится o том, что:
you shouldn’t send confidential information over the network? _ C__
1 you must inform someone about any problems? _____
2 you can’t use personal email software? _____
3 you should install software to protect the system? _____
4 films mustn’t be downloaded? _____
5 you cannot use external drives for backing up? _____
6 you must use a secure connection to move files? _____
7 you should change your password regularly? _____
8 make sure no one else can access your computer files? _____
9 you should check addresses before you send emails? _____