INFORMATION DEPENDENT SOCIETY
Ознакомьтесь с терминами текста 1.
computer literacy — компьютерная грамотность
problem-solving device — устройство, обеспечивающее решение задачи
be aware of — понимать, сознавать
opportunity — возможность
basics — основы
application— применение; использование
to restate — пересмотреть, переосмыслить
significant — значительный
achievements — достижения
computing — вычисление; счет; работа на компьютере
to embrace — охватывать
instruction — команда, инструкция, указание
to direct the operation — направлять работу
to process— обрабатывать
subscription magazine— журнал по подписке
data processing system— система обработки данных
store manager— директор магазина
to have much in common — иметь много общего
Прочтите текст и скажите, как вы понимаете термины «информационное общество» и «компьютерная грамотность».
Text 1. COMPUTER LITERACY
Informed citizens of our information-dependent society should be computer-literate, which means that they should be able to use computers as everyday problem-solving devices. They should be aware of the potential of computers to influence the quality of life.
There was a time when only privileged people had an opportunity to learn the basics, called the three R's: reading, writing, and arithmetic. Now, as we are quickly becoming an information-becoming society, it is time to restate this right as the right to learn reading, writing and computing.There is little doubt that computers and their many applications are among the most significant technical achievements of the century. They bring with them both economic and social changes. "Computing" is a concept that embraces not only the old third R, arithmetic, but also a new idea - computer literacy.
In an information society a person who is computer-literate need not be an expert on the design of computers. He needn't even know much about how to prepare programs which are the instructions that direct the operations of computers. All of us are already on the way to becoming computer-literate. Just think of your everyday life. If you receive a subscription magazine in the post-office, it is probably addressed to you by a computer. If you buy something with a bank credit card or pay a bill by check, computers help you process the information. When you check out at the counter of your store, a computer assists the checkout clerk and the store manager. When you visit your doctor your schedules and bills and special services, such as laboratory-tests, are prepared by computer. Many actions that you have taken or observed have much in common. Each relates to some aspect of a data processing system.
3. Просмотрите текст 1 еще раз. Ответьтена вопросы, используя информацию текста.
1.What does "a computer-literate person" mean? 2. Are you aware of the potential of computers to influence your life? 3. What do the people mean by "the basics"? 4. What is the role of computers in our society? 5. What is computing? 6. What is a program? 7. Prove that we all are on the way to becoming computer-literate. 8. Give examples of using computers in everyday life.
4. Прочтите, переведите и запомните следующие выражения:
An information-dependent society; a computer-literate citizen; an everyday problem-solving device; to be aware; to influence the quality of life; to have an opportunity; to learn the basics; to learn computing; the most significant technical achievements; to embrace computer literacy; to prepare programs; to direct the operations of a computer; to be on the way of becoming computer-literate; to process information; to have much in common; a data processing system.
Вспомните образование и случаи употребления The Past Simple Tense.
А. Назовите три формы следующих неправильных глаголов:
То be; to have; to mean; to learn; to become; to bring; to know; to think; to buy; to pay; to take; to do; to begin; to give; to make; to keep; to get; to read; to show.
Б. Преобразуйте следующие предложения в Past Simple.
1. Many people have an opportunity to use computers.
2.There is no doubt that computers solve problems very quickly.
3. Instructions direct the operation of a computer.
4.Computers bring with them both economic and social changes.
5.Computing embraces not only arithmetics, but also computer literacy.
6.It is well known that computers prepare laboratory tests.
7.Those persons are computer literate and think of buying a new computer.
8.They receive a subscription magazine once a month.
9.My mother is ill and visits her doctor every other day.
10. Experts know much about how to prepare programs.
Text 2. MICROELECTRONICS AND MICROMINIATURIZATION
The intensive effort of electronics to increase the reliability and performance of its products while reducing their size and cost led to the results that hardly anyone could predict. The evolution of electronic technology is sometimes called a revolution: a quantitative change in technology gave rise to qualitative change in human capabilities. There appeared a new branch of science — microelectronics.
Microelectronics embraces electronics connected with the realization of electronic circuits, systems and subsystems from very small electronic devices. Microelectronics is a name for extremely small electronic components and circuit assemblies, made by film or semiconductor techniques. A microelectronic technology reduced transistors and other circuit elements to dimensions almost invisible to unaided eye. The point of this extraordinary miniaturization is to make circuits long-lasting, low in cost, and capable of performing electronic functions at extremely high speed. It is known that the speed of response depends on the size of transistor: the smaller the transistor, the faster it is. The smaller the computer, the faster it can work.
One more advantage of microelectronics is that smaller devices consume less power. In space satellites and spaceships this is a very important factor.
Another benefit resulting from microelectronics is the reduction of distances between circuit components. Packing density increased with the appearance of small-scale integrated circuit, medium-scale IС, large-scale 1С and very-large-scale IС. The change in scale was measured by the number of transistors on a chip. There appeared a new type of integrated circuits, microwave integrated circuit. The evolution of microwave IС began with the development of planar transmission lines. Then new IС components in a fine-line transmission line appeared. Other more exotic techniques, such as dielectric waveguide integrated circuits emerged.
Microelectronic technique is continuing to displace other modes. Circuit patterns are being formed with radiation having wavelength shorter than those of light.
Electronics has extended man's intellectual power. Microelectronics extends that power still further.
1. Просмотрите текст еще раз и ответьте на вопросы, используя информацию текста.
1. What would you say about electronics? 2. Why is the development of electronics called a revolution? 3. What is microelectronics? 4. What techniques does microelectronics use? 5. What is the benefit of reducing the size of circuit elements? 6. What do you understand by the term of microminiaturization? 7. What does the speed of the signal response depend on?
8. What advantages of microelectronics do you know? 9. What scales of integration are known to you? 10. How are microelectronics techniques developing?
2. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих словосочетаний:
Интенсивные усилия; увеличить надежность; увеличить параметры; уменьшить размер и стоимость; вряд ли кто-нибудь мог прогнозировать; количественные и качественные изменения; область науки; пленочная технология; полупроводниковый метод; сокращать элементы схемы; суть миниатюризации в том, что; создать схемы с долгим сроком службы; чрезвычайно высокая скорость реакции; чем меньше, тем быстрее; преимущество; расходовать энергию; польза; уменьшение расстояния между элементами схемы; большая интегральная схема; микроволновая интегральная схема; волновод; линия передач; смещать; изображение схем; расширять возможности человека.
3. Переведите следующие слова. Обратите внимание на то, что префиксы dis-, in-, ип-, поп-, ir- придают словам отрицательное значение.
dis-: disadvantage; disconnect; disappear; disclose; discomfort; discontinue; discount; discredit; discriminate; disintegrate.
in-:invisible; inaccurate; inactive; incapable; incompact; insignificant; inhuman; informal; ineffective; indifferent; indecisive; inconsumable; incorrect.
un-:uncontrollable; unbelievable; unable; unchanged; uncomfortable; uncommunicative; undisciplined; unexpected; unfavourable; unforgettable; unkind.
поп-: non-effective; non-aggressive; noncomparable; non-computable; non-constant; non-controllable; non-digital; non-dimensional; non-programmable; non-usable.
ir-:irregular; irrelative; irresponsive; irrational; irreplaceable; irrecognizable.
4. Вспомните образование страдательного залога — to be (в нужном времени) + 3-я форма глагола.
А. Найдите пять случаев употребления страдательного залога в тексте 1 и четыре случая — в тексте 2. Переведите предложения.
Б. Преобразуйте следующие предложения действительного залога в страдательный по образцу:
People widely use electronic devices. - Electronic devices are widely used by people.
1. Electronic devices control the work of power stations. 2. They calculate the trajectories of spaceships. 3. People discover new phenomena of nature due to electronic devices. 4. Scientists designed a variety of tubes for specialized functions. 5. American scientists invented the transistor in 1948. 6. Integrated circuits greatly reduced the size of devices. 7. New types of integrated circuits increased packing density. 8. Electronics has extended man's intellectual power. 9. Scientists are looking for new ways for the improvement of integrated circuits technology. 10. Jack Kilby developed the concept of integrating device and built the first 1С in 1958.
5. Прочтите текст (по вариантам) и озаглавьте его. Выполните письменный перевод текста по вариантам.
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1.It is well known that the quick development of electronics began with the invention of transistors. They replaced electronic tubes due to their numerous advantages. One of the main advantages of the transistors in comparison with the vacuum tube is absence of filament power loss. One of the principal causes of damages in electronic circuitry is high temperature. The heat causes breakdown of tubes and other circuit elements that are very sensitive to this influence. The transistor, on the other hand, does not heat its surroundings.
Another advantage of the transistor is its long life. The life of the average transistor is more than ten thousand operating hours. Because of its long lifetime and ruggedness, the transistor is very reliable and has much better efficiency in professional equipment.
2. As we know, transistors replaced electronic tubes due to their numerous advantages. One of the advantages of the transistor is its small dimensions. Because of their small size, the absence of heating and other properties, transistors make it possible to produce compact, small-dimensioned electronic devices which consume very little power.
In conclusion it is important to note that transistors revolutionized many fields of technology. They are successfully used for direct transformation of heat energy by means of thermal elements. They are also used to convert radiant energy into electricity with the help of photocells or solar batteries. Light sources and lasers are built on the basis of transistors. They find wide application in computers, automatic devices, aviation, communication, etc.
filament power loss — отсутствие энергии на нити накала