TOPIC1. english as an international language.
There are over 2,700 languages in the world, but English today is the most important international language. Four hundred million people speak English as their first language. Six hundred million people speak it either as a second or as a foreign language. That is 20 percent of the world's population. English has become a world language, because it is spoken as a mother tongue in all the continents of the world. In the 17th century it was brought to North America by the first colonisers. Then in the 18th century English was brought to Australia, later on to Africa and India. English is spoken practically all over the world. It is spoken as the mother tongue in Great Britain, the United States of America, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. A lot of people speak English in China, Japan, India, Africa and other countries. It is studied as a foreign language in many schools.
England’s history helps to understand the present condition of English. Many English words were borrowed from the language of Angles and Saxons. Hundreds of French words came into English. These French words didn't crowd out corresponding Anglo-Saxon words. There exist "act" and "deed", "beautiful" and "pretty", "form" and "shape".
Many new words were brought by traders and travellers. These words came from all parts of the world: "umbrella" — from Italian, "skates" — from Dutch, "tea" — from Chinese, "cigar" — from Spanish. Some words came into English directly from Latin, which was the language of the church and the universities in the Middle Ages.
Some of the English words of today are derivatives. One way of creating new words is to put together two or more older English words. For example, the words "railway", "football", "newspaper" are made in this way.
Many of the new English words — especially new scientific ones — have been made from Latin and Greek words instead of English ones. "Telephone" for instance, was made from Greek words "far" and "talk". Millions of people are learning English today. It is the language of summit meetings and international conferences. It's also the language of the United Nations. Foreign political leaders usually speak to international journalists in English. The latest discoveries and ideas in all spheres of science and medicine appear in special international journals, of which 60 percent are in English. 80 percent of all information in the world's computers is in English. Besides, there are a lot of brilliant world-famous English, American, Canadian and Australian writers and poets who gave the world their wonderful works. The reader can fully appreciate them only in the original. And finally, many young people learn English as a foreign language because it is the language of rock and pop music. So, English can be used for many different purposes and serve as a key to other cultures and their riches.
first language, mother tongue — родной язык
20 percent — 20 процентов
population — население
summit meeting — совещание в верхах
the United Nations — ООН
international journalists — международные корреспонденты
sphere— сфера, область
to appear — появляться
besides — кроме того
brilliant — великолепный, замечательный
to appreciate — понимать, ценить
in the original — в оригинале
finally — наконец
to use — использовать
different— разный, различный
purpose — цель
to serve — служить
riches— богатство to borrow – заимствовать to exist – существовать to crowd out – вытеснять derivative – производное слово Angles and Saxons – англы и саксы
topic2. my future career.
When I was at school, I knew I would continue my education after finishing school. The question was what to choose. Now I know that I want to become a psychologist.
Psychology is a very useful and important subject because it deals with people, their behaviour, their relationships. It can help people in all spheres of their life. For example, children's psychology helps bring up children in the family, it also helps teachers at school. Psychology helps people solve their personal problems and communicate with other people. Psychologists are necessary at kindergardens, at schools, at factories and offices. Special psychological tests can help us choose our future career and are useful for administrators and managers in hiring their employees.
Psychology as a subject is studied now in many universities, institutes and colleges. Every specialist who is going to deal with people is supposed to know psychology. But I want to make a special study of psychology and become a psychotherapist. I feel that I can make a good specialist. That's why I want to enter the Department of Psychology of the South Urals State University.
If I am lucky, I'll have a chance to study different aspects of psychology, listen to lectures and attend seminars of famous professors and lecturers. To be able to read literature on psychology in English, I must know English well. I am going to work hard at my English and improve it at the University. I am glad to have become the student of the South Urals State University, the 9th best university among Russian polytechnical higher education establishments. Students' life is interesting and eventful. I want to be an active participant of all students' events and amateur activities. Today Russian higher education like European and American education is divided into two steps: bachelors and masters of science or arts. As the competition is great in the home and foreign labor markets, I’m going to take the bachelor and master of arts degrees and continue postgraduate education to take the doctor of arts degree. Maybe it is worth taking another education in scientific sphere. Career choosing depends on your personal qualities: your ability to communicate with other people, stressproofness, mentality, your personal ambitions, working ability, adaptation to different conditions and the labor market demand.
to dream of smth./doing smth. — мечтать о чем-л.
to come true — сбываться
attractive— привлекательный, заманчивый
to grow older — взрослеть
to choose a career — выбрать профессию
to face a problem — столкнуться с проблемой
to develop — развивать(ся)
to appear — появляться
to take an entrance examination in— сдавать вступительный экзамен по to pass the exam successfully — успешно сдать экзамен to get the necessary number of grades — набрать необходимое количество баллов
psychology — психология
psychologist — психолог
in all spheres of life — во всех сферах жизни
to solve problems — решать проблемы
employee– сотрудник, работник to hire – нанимать to deal with – иметь дело с department– отделение, факультет bachelor of science/arts – бакалавр естественных/гуманитарных наук master of science/arts – магистр естественных/гуманитарных наук
Travelling is a very useful thing. It widens our outlook, gives us the possibility to meet with people from other countries, acquaints us with different cultures, traditions and customs, country history and languages. Having returned home after travelling we bring souvenirs, photos and lots of impressions of our trip. Today thanks to the world globalization and integration all countries borders are practically open for tourism. The economies of some countries are built on tour business. Getting to travel don’t forget about several important things such as: a tour visa, a life insurance, a guidebook, plastic card (for the payments) and mobile phone. Last Christmas I went to Paris with my family. It was incredible travelling and I would like to share some of my impressions with you. Paris is the capital of France and one of the biggest cities of Europe. It is situated on the Seine River banks in the north part of France. The population of Paris with its suburbs is 12 600 000 people and 45 million tourists visit the city annually. Paris is the recognized capital of the world fashion and the location of Dior, Chanel, Yves Saint Laurent, Lanvin fashion houses. Paris is divided into 20 administrative districts. The most famous ones are: du Louvre is the geographic and historic heart of Paris. It’s the first district of the city where the world-famous Art Museum Louvre is situated. De Pantheon is a tour mecca and one of the oldest districts on the left bank of the Seine. The district center is Sorbonne University. Du Luxembourg or Saint-Germain is famous for its garden with the fountains, it is a popular place of rest for Parisians and the city guests. Palais Bourbon or Eiffel Tower district is the politic center of Paris, where many departments and offices and the National Assembly of France are concentrated. The main places of interest are the Paris symbol Eiffel Tower and Champ de Mars. The Elysees is the residence of the France president. There is the Triumphal Arch on the Charles de Gaulle Square in the Elysees. Butte-Montmartre is the north district with the highest point of Paris. The history of Paris began from this place. The famous Moulin Rouge Cabaret and Saint Jeanne d’Arc Church are here. Paris is located in the temperate oceanic climate zone with 25 degrees above zero in summer and 3-8 degrees above zero in winter on average. It was unforgettable travelling for me, next summer I and my family are going to Spain. I hope you’ve got something exciting to tell us about your travelling.
useful – полезный to widen outlook – расширять кругозор acquaint smb. – знакомить кого-то borders - границы I would like to share – мне бы хотелось поделиться/рассказать
insurance – страховка a guidebook– путеводитель annually – ежегодно impressions – впечатления recognized– признанный be located = be situated – располагаться, размещаться unforgettable– незабываемый Champ de Mars – Марсово Поле The Elysees – Елисейские Поля the temperate oceanic climate zone – зона умеренного океанического климата on average – в среднем