Text 2 Information Technologies
ЗАДАНИЯ ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ ВСЕХ ТЕХНИЧЕСКИХ СПЕЦИАЛЬНОСТЕЙ НА V СЕМЕСТР
Для сдачи зачёта (экзамена) студентам ЗФ технических специальностей предлагается выполнение следующих заданий:
1) Перевод четырёх предлагаемых текстов с листа. (!!! Во время перевода тексов преподавателю можно пользоваться только списком слов с переводом.)
2) Контрольная работа №5 – выполнение одного из пяти вариантов; первый текст не переводится - по тексту выполняются задания со II-VI, задание VII – грамматическое, письменный перевод текста в задании VIII. Вариант выбирается по последней цифре шифра студента.
(1, 2 – вариант № 1; 3,4 - вариант № 2; 5, 6 - вариант № 3; 7, 8 – вариант № 4; 9,0 – вариант № 5)
3) Тема: “Technological Innovations” – “Технологические новшества (Новые технологии)”
4) Перевод текста, предлагаемого экзаменатором.
Защита контрольных работ и перевода технических текстов проводится по расписанию во время сессии, а в течение семестра по четвергам с 17.05 - 20.00. Тексты переводятся с листа: a) Вы читаете текст на английском языке, затем его переводите, глядя на английскийвариант текста. Разрешается пользоваться, составленным вами словарем по предложенным текстам.
N.B. Просьба распечататьконтрольные работы (свой вариант) и тексты и принести их на зачет.
1) 4 текста на перевод с листа:
A laser is a device that emits light (electromagnetic radiation) through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of photons. The term "laser" originated as an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. The emitted laser light is notable for its high degree of spatial and temporal coherence.
Spatial coherence is typically expressed through the output being a narrow beam which is diffraction-limited, often a so-called "pencil beam." Laser beams can be focused to very tiny spots, achieving a very high irradiance, or they can be launched into beams of very low divergence in order to concentrate their power at a large distance.
Temporal (or longitudinal) coherence implies a polarized wave at a single frequency whose phase is correlated over a relatively large distance (the coherence length) along the beam. A beam produced by a thermal or other incoherent light source has an instantaneous amplitude and phase which vary randomly with respect to time and position, and thus a very short coherence length.
Most so-called "single wavelength" lasers actually produce radiation in several modes having slightly different frequencies (wavelengths), often not in a single polarization. And although temporal coherence implies monochromaticity, there are even lasers that emit a broad spectrum of light, or emit different wavelengths of light simultaneously. There are some lasers which are not single spatial mode and consequently their light beams diverge more than required by the diffraction limit. However all such devices are classified as "lasers" based on their method of producing that light: stimulated emission. Lasers are employed in applications where light of the required spatial or temporal coherence could not be produced using simpler technologies.
amplification – распространение, увеличение
beam – луч, пучок лучей
coherence – связь, согласованность, когерентность
diffraction-limited – дифракционно - ограниченный
diverge – расходиться, отклоняться, отойти от нормы
emission – излучение, выделение, распространение
instantaneous – текущий, быстродействующий
irradiance – облученность, поверхностная плотность потока излучения
longitudinal – продольный, относящийся к длине
spatial - пространственный
Text 2 Information Technologies
Information technology (also referred to as IT) is the application of computers and telecommunications equipment to store, retrieve, transmit and manipulate data, often in the context of a business or other enterprise. The term is commonly used as a synonym for computers and computer networks, but it also encompasses other information distribution technologies such as television and telephones. Several industries are associated with information technology, such as computer hardware, software, electronics, semiconductors, internet, telecom equipment, e-commerce and computer services.
In the business context, the Information Technology Association of America has defined information technology (IT) as "the study, design, development, application, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems". The business value of information technology is to automate business processes, provide information for decision making, connect business with their customers, and provide productivity tools to increase efficiency. In an academic context, the Association for Computing Machinery defines it as "undergraduate degree programs that prepare students to meet the computer technology needs of business, government, healthcare, schools, and other kinds of organizations .... IT specialists assume responsibility for selecting hardware and software products appropriate for an organization, integrating those products with organizational needs and infrastructure, and installing, customizing, and maintaining those applications for the organization’s computer users. Examples of these responsibilities include the installation of networks; network administration and security; the design of web pages; the development of multimedia resources; the installation of communication components; the oversight of email systems; and the planning and management of the technology lifecycle by which an organization’s technology is maintained, upgraded, and replaced."
e-commerce – торговля по Интернету, интернет-коммерция
oversight – контроль, надзор, упущение, ошибка
retrieve – восстановление, поиск и выборка, исправление
Text 3 Optical Fibers
An optical fiber (or optical fibre) is a flexible, transparent fiber made of glass (silica) or plastic, slightly thicker than a human hair. It functions as a waveguide, or “light pipe”, to transmit light between the two ends of the fiber. The field of applied science and engineering concerned with the design and application of optical fibers is known as fiber optics. Optical fibers are widely used in fiber-optic communications, which permits transmission over longer distances and at higher bandwidths (data rates) than other forms of communication. Fibers are used instead of metal wires because signals travel along them with less loss and are also immune to electromagnetic interference. Fibers are also used for illumination, and are wrapped in bundles so that they may be used to carry images, thus allowing viewing in confined spaces. Specially designed fibers are used for a variety of other applications, including sensors and fiber lasers.
Optical fibers typically include a transparent core surrounded by a transparent cladding material with a lower index of refraction. Light is kept in the core by total internal reflection. This causes the fiber to act as a waveguide. Fibers that support many propagation paths or transverse modes are called multi-mode fibers (MMF), while those that only support a single mode are called single-mode fibers (SMF). Multi-mode fibers generally have a wider core diameter, and are used for short-distance communication links and for applications where high power must be transmitted. Single-mode fibers are used for most communication links longer than 1,050 meters (3,440 ft).
Joining lengths of optical fiber is more complex than joining electrical wire or cable. The ends of the fibers must be carefully cleaved, and then spliced together, either mechanically or by fusing them with heat. Special optical fiber connectors for removable connections are also available.
bandwidths – диапазон частот, ширина спектра
bundle - пучок, связка, кабель
cleave – разрубать, расщеплять
confined – ограниченный, изолированный
core – ядро, внутренность, активная зона, стержень, центр, суть
fuse - плавить
index of refraction- показатель лучепреломления
propagation paths – трасса распространения, траектория радиоволны
single-mode/ multi-mode – одномодовое / многомодовое
transparent - проницаемый, прозрачный
transverse – поперечный, вертикальный
waveguide – волновод
Text 4 Bioengineering
Biological engineering, biotechnological engineering or bioengineering (including biological systems engineering) is the application of concepts and methods of biology (and secondarily of physics, chemistry, mathematics, and computer science) to solve real-world problems related to the life sciences and/or the application thereof, using engineering's own analytical and synthetic methodologies and also its traditional sensitivity to the cost and practicality of the solution(s) arrived at. In this context, while traditional engineering applies physical and mathematical sciences to analyze, design and manufacture inanimate tools, structures and processes, biological engineering uses primarily the rapidly developing body of knowledge known as molecular biology to study and advance applications of living organisms.
The differentiation between biological engineering and biomedical engineering can be unclear, as many universities now use the terms "bioengineering" and "biomedical engineering" interchangeably. Biomedical engineers are specifically focused on applying biological and other sciences toward medical innovations, whereas biological engineers are focused principally on applying biology - but not necessarily to medical uses. Neither biological engineering nor biomedical engineering is wholly contained within the other, as there are non-biological products for medical needs and biological products for non-medical needs.
An especially important application is the analysis and cost-effective solution of problems related to human health, but the field is much more general than that. For example, biomimetics is a branch of biological engineering which strives to find ways in which the structures and functions of living organisms can be used as models for the design and engineering of materials and machines. Systems biology, on the other hand, seeks to utilize the engineer's familiarity with complex artificial systems, and perhaps the concepts used in "reverse engineering", to facilitate the difficult process of recognition of the structure, function, and precise method of operation of complex biological systems.
biomimetics - биомиметика
cost-effective – рентабельный, экономически эффективный
facilitate – облегчать, содействовать, упрощать
inanimate – неодушевлённый, неживой
strive – стараться, стремиться, прилагать усилия
utilize – использовать, осваивать, применять, употреблять
Контрольная работа № 5
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