IV. Read some interesting fast facts about Canada. Memorize them




I. Study the list of topical vocabulary to avoid the difficulties in understanding the text “Canada”. Memorize them.

Coastline ['kəustlaɪn] - береговая линия

Province ['prɔvɪn(t)s] – провинция

Prairie ['preərɪ] - степь

Michigan ['mɪʃɪgən] - (озеро) Мичиган

Permanent ['pɜːm(ə)nənt] - постоянный, неизменный

Inuit (the Inuit(s)) ['ɪn(j)uɪt] - инуиты (политкорректное наименование эскимосов, живущих на Аляске, в Гренландии и Канаде)

Métis [meɪ'tiː] – метис

Viking ['vaɪkɪŋ] – викинг

beaver furs ['biːvə] [fɜː] – бобровый мех

Ottawa ['ɔtəwə] - Оттава (столица Канады)

Sovereign ['sɔv(ə)rɪn] – монарх

Bloc Québécois [blɒk keɪbɛ'kwɑː] - Квебе́кский блок

 

II. Find all proper or personal names (toponyms, anthroponyms, ergonyms, ethnonyms etc.) and complete the table

toponym anthroponyms ergonym ethnonym
Canada David Johnston the cabinet Eskimo

III. Read and translate the text about Canada. Point out its main parts ant entitle them

 

Canada is a country in the northern part of North America, bordered by the United States of America to both the south and to the west (Alaska). By area, Canada is the second largest country in the world.

The name of Canada has been in use since the earliest European settlement in Canada, with the name originating from a First Nations word kanata (or canada) for "settlement", "village", or "land". Today, Canada is pronounced [ˈkænədə] in English and [kana’da] in French.

Geography

Canada is the second largest country in the world in land area, after Russia. It has the longest border with water (coastline) of any country in the world. It is next to the Pacific, Arctic, and Atlantic Oceans.

Around 34.9 million people live in Canada's ten provinces and three territories, with the majority living in the southern sections of Canada.

Canada has six time zones. It extends from the west coast, across the prairies and central Canada, to the Atlantic provinces. In the north there are three territories, stretching between Alaska and Greenland.

Four of the five Great Lakes (Superior, Huron, Erie, and Ontario) are shared between Canada and the United States (Lake Michigan is in the USA).

History

In 1583, Sir Humphrey Gilbert claimed St. John's, Newfoundland, as the first North American English colony by the royal prerogative of Queen Elizabeth I. French explorer Samuel de Champlain arrived in 1603, and established the first permanent European settlements at Port Royal in 1605 and Quebec City in 1608

Native people lived in what is now Canada for thousands of years before the first Europeans arrived. They are known as the First Nations and the Inuit (Eskimos) people. The Métis have part First Nations and part European backgrounds.

The Vikings were the first Europeans known to land in Canada. Europeans started exploring Canada's eastern coast, beginning with John Cabot from England in 1497. The Europeans also traded beaver furs to the First Nations.

On July 1st, 1867, Canada was united under a federal government. It included the provinces of Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. Sir John A. Macdonald was the first prime minister.

Many French Canadians today wish to form their own country, separate from the rest of Canada. Today, about 25% of Canadians speak French as their first language. Many people can speak both French and English. Although most French Canadians live in the province of Quebec, there are French-speaking communities and people all across Canada. For example, 40% of the people in the province of New Brunswick and 20% of those in Manitoba have a strong French background, as do some people in Ontario, mainly along its border with Quebec.

There are several larger and smaller ethnic groups in Canada now. The most spread of them are English, French, Scottish, Irish, Aboriginal peoples of Canada and some others.

Government

Ottawa is the capital of Canada. The current head of government, the prime minister, is Stephen Harper, who replaced Paul Martin Jr. in January of 2006. Each province and territory has a premier to lead its government.

Canada has a government called a constitutional monarchy. It has a monarch (meaning a king or queen is the head of that country), and is a democracy (meaning the people of that country rule it). The head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who is officially the Queen of Canada. She appoints a Governor General to represent her in the country. However, the choice of Governor General is made by the prime minister. The Governor General, like the Canadian sovereign (King/Queen of Canada), is not political and remains above politics, and because of that they do not usually use their powers without the advice of ministers.

The Parliament of Canada passes the laws of the country. The king or queen (or the governor general in their place) has the right to veto a law (meaning the law cannot go into effect) but this right has not been used for some time. The day-to-day operations of the government are run by the cabinet. The cabinet is usually formed from the largest party in Parliament.

There are four main parties in the Canadian Parliament: the Conservative Party, the Liberal Party, the New Democratic Party, and Bloc Québécois. In addition, there are several other smaller parties, but their candidates are not usually elected to Parliament (although they have won many local elections).

IV. Read some interesting fast facts about Canada. Memorize them

1. Capital - Ottawa

2. Largest city – Toronto

3. Official language(s) - English and French

4. Government - Federal parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy

Monarch - Elizabeth II

Governor General - David Johnston

Prime Minister - Stephen Harper

5. Legislature - Parliament

Upper House - Senate

Lower House - House of Commons

6. Currency - Canadian dollar

7. Date formats - dd-mm-yyyy, mm-dd-yyyy, and yyyy-mm-dd

8. Drives on the Right

9. Motto: A Mari Usque Ad Mare (Latin) - "From Sea to Sea"

10. Anthem: "O Canada"

11. Royal anthem: "God Save the Queen"

12. - The Maple Leaf flag became Canada's flag on 15th of February, 1965.

- The Arms of Canada (also known as the Royal Coat of Arms of Canadaor formally as the Arms of Her Majesty The Queen in Right of Canada) is, since 1921, the official coat of arms of the Canadian monarch, and thus also of Canada. It is closely modeled after the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom with distinctive Canadian elements replacing or added to those derived from the British.

...





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