Unincorporated associations





Московская финансово-промышленная академия

 

 

Кузнецова О.С.

Гитович Р.А.

 

«English for students of Law»

 

 

Part I.

Business Organisations

 

 

Москва

 

Содержание

· Unit 1. The Structure of English legal System

· 1. Words to be remembered.

· 2. Text for reading.

· 3. Questions.

· Unit 2. Business Organisations

· 1. Words to be remembered.

· 2. Text for reading.

· 3. Questions.

· 4. Find the following sentences in the text.

· Unit 3. Business Organisations

· 1. Words to be remembered.

· 2. Text for reading.

· 3. Questions.

· 4. Find the following sentences in the text.

· Unit 4. Business Organisations

· 1. Words to be remembered.

· 2. Text for reading.

· 3. Questions.

· 4. Find the following sentences in the text.

· Unit 5. Shares and Shareholders

· 1. Words to be remembered.

· 2. Text for reading.

· 3. Questions.

· 4. Find the following sentences in the text.

· Unit 6. Consumer Protection

· 1. Words to be remembered.

· 2. Text for reading.

· 3. Questions.

· 4. Find the following sentences in the text.

· Unit 7. Bankruptcy

· 1. Words to be remembered.

· 2. Text for reading.

· 3. Questions.

· 4. Find the following sentences in the text.

· Vocabulary

· Latin terms


Unit 1. The Structure of English legal System

 

1. Words to be remembered.

liability – ответственность

overlap – частично совпадать

extra-gratia (лат.) – по милосердию, из милости

sue – предъявлять иск

to sue for damages – предъявлять иск на возмещение убытков

natural person – физическое лицо

legal person – юридическое лицо

domicile – постоянное место жительства

allegiance – гражданство

alien – иностранец

matrimonial proceedings act – закон, действующий в сфере брачных

отношений

tortiously liable – ответственный за правонарушение

tort – деликт, гражданское правонарушение

charted – привилегированный, отмеченный грамотой

statutory – статутный, предусмотренный законом

case law – прецедентное право

legislation – законодательство

European Community Law – Европейское законодательство

Binding precedent – прецедент юридического обязательства

Ratio decidendi (лат.) – мотивы решения

obiter dictum (лат.) – мнение или высказывание судьи, не носящее

нормоустановительного характера

persuasive – использующийся с целью убеждения

overrule – аннулировать, отклонить, считать недействительным

per incuriam (лат.) – по невнимательности

dissenting judgement – особое мнение

equity – справедливость

equitable right – право, основанное на справедливости

common law – общее право

discretionary – представленный на усмотрение

lease – аренда

mortgage – ипотека, залог, кредит, вклад

fraud – обман, мошенничество

intra vires – в пределах компетенции, в пределах полномочий

promulgate – обнародовать

binding – имеющий обязательную силу

supremacy – верховенство

unconditional – безусловный

unqualified – безоговорочный

precedence – старшинство, приоритет

discretion – свобода действия

ruling – постановление (суда)

judgement – приговор, судебное решение

will – завещание

murder – убийство (заранее обдуманное)

rape – изнасилование


2. Text for reading.

The Classification of English Law

In England the main distinction is between criminal and civil law. Criminal and civil liability overlap but criminal law exists to punish criminals and, although compensation payments are made under the Powers of Criminal Courts Act 1973, and the Criminal Injuries Compensation Scheme 1964 makes ex – gratia payments to victims of violent crime, these will generally sue in civil law for damages.

Legal Personality

Legal rights attach to legal persons; these can be (i) natural and (ii) artificial persons or corporations.

Natural persons

Important for natural persons are nationality and domicile, gender and race. Nationality determines a person’s public rights, such as allegiance, the right to vote and to sit in Parliament, although the nationals of one member state of the European Community have equal rights with nationals in other member states. A person will normally have only one nationality but may have dual nationality and can be stateless. Civil law generally treats nationals and aliens alike.

Domicile determines the regulatory legal system of a person. All people are domiciled somewhere and can only have one domicile at any given time. There are three types of domicile: (i) domicile of origin, (ii) domicile of choice and (iii) dependent domicile. Domicile of origin attaches to the person at birth. Domicile of choice arises where a person of full age and capacity establishes a permanent home in a country with the intention of remaining there. Dependent domicile was relevant for minors and married women whose domicile was dependent upon their parents or husband. The Domicile and Matrimonial Proceedings Act (DMPA) 1973 now allows married women to acquire a domicile separate from their husband, and minors to acquire an independent domicile at 16.

Corporations

The principal corporations are composed of a number of persons and classifiable as (i) chartered, (ii) statutory and (iii) registered corporations. Chartered corporations are created by royal charter. The earliest trading corporations were created in this way: The Hudson Bay Company, The East India Company. Today chartered corporations comprise professional bodies such as the Institute of Chartered Secretaries and Administrators (ICSA). The older universities are chartered corporations. Statutory corporations are created by special Act of Parliament. Local authorities are statutory corporations, as are the nationalised industries, although their number has been reduced through privatisation. Registered corporations are incorporated under the Companies Act 1985 and are the normal trading companies.

Unincorporated associations

These have no legal personality and their property is jointly owned by the members who are also contractually and tortiously liable. Special rules relate to trade unions, employers’ associations and partnerships.





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