Life in the city is much easier than in the country - developed transport system, sewerage system, information, sports, shopping malls, etc. Modem men are too sophisticated for simple country pleasures. There is far more entertainment in the city than in the country. Cities offer high concentration of good things in life: big stores, restaurants, theatres, cinema, art galleries. Life is more convenient in a city: services are always better here. In the city people are more open-minded. It is possible to go out, make friends and never be cut off from them by weather conditions. Generally, people do not mind what you do in the city. In the city people have more chances to be employed, as the range of jobs is greater than in a village. Besides in the city people have more chances to succeed. Moreover, life is never dull in the city; people always have something to do here. The objections to city living are not convincing enough. People easily adapt to various inconveniences of city life. For example, noise and traffic are hardly noticeable to city-dwellers. In the city people live in apartments with central heating, telephone, gas, electricity, radio, TV, the Internet. Most people love cities.
Pollution is the greatest disadvantage of the city life of today. Polluted air is hanging like a brown cloud over cities. Dirt and smoke are pouring from the buildings of cites and factories. Polluted urban air causes respiratory distress, particularly in children, and elderly people. The increased number of motor vehicles not only jam the city streets but pollute the city air as well.
Cars give a collection of pollutants. In bright, calm weather, sunlight turns the chemicals into poison smog. All big cities have problems with air pollution. There was still nothing anywhere like «killer-smog» which caused some 3000-4000 deaths in London in December 1952. Mexico city's air is famously filthy, as is that of many Indian, Chinese, and East European cities. The exceeding output of industries and urban communities is harmful to the city aquatic systems. The result is a foul-smelling body of water running for a bath or dish washing. Noise pollution is the problem of big cities too. Urban garbage - like food, paper, and cans - on the ground or in the street is one more problem of cities. People don't always put their garbage in the garbage can. Urban garbage is ugly.
There are lots of other disadvantages of living in a big city. Today's cities are ballooning. Now Mexico city holds around 18 mln people. "The rush-hour” with crowded streets, packed trains, full buses that happens twice a day is one of them. Cost of living is very high in the cities. In addition, people live under constant threat; life is not quiet in the cities, it causes stresses and heart disease. Everyone who cares about his health tries to move out from the city. Cities are not fit to live in, man are born for countryside. Most people in Europe and America try to live in non-industrial cities, which are set down near big cities and can not be killed by pollution and traffic.
In the countryside we enjoy such simple things of primary importance as sunlight and fresh air. Besides, living in the countryside is cheaper and safer than in a city. It provides people with more security. There is less crime and, of course, there is less traffic there. Life in the countryside is quiet, peaceful, and healthy. I like to be close to nature. Here people are friendly and it is much more pleasant in the countryside than in the city. Unfortunately, life in the countryside is rather hard. Working and living conditions are difficult, social and cultural life in the countryside is not full of entertainment. And annually more and more young people flee from the countryside for a better life in the city.
Certainly, the problem of employment in the countryside is very crucial today. It is especially acute for the young people and professionals. As a rule there are few labour places for skilled agricultural workers and less for professionals. Although villages do need teachers and physicians, they can not provide them with the necessary facilities. There are few schools and clinics in the countryside. Sometimes there is one secondary school for several villages and children have to walk ten kilometers to study there. Usually either the village community is too poor to provide the children with a bus or the roads are too bad for the bus to run off them.
Surely, people should always be optimists and hope for a better life. Where there is a will there is a way. Nowadays we can witness the revival of some villages. So far they are few but annually their number is increasing.
sewerage system – система канализации
sophisticated – искушенный в житейских делах, опытный
entertainment - развлечение
be employed – работать, служить
succeed - преуспеть
objection - возражение
jam – загромождать
garbage - мусор
filthy - грязный
exceeding – безмерный, чрезмерный
heart diseases – болезни сердца
close – близкий
flee – бежать
crucial - критический
acute – острый
Answer the questions:
1 Where would you prefer to live in the city or in the country?
2 What are the advantages of living in the modern city?
3 Are there any disadvantages of living in the city?
4 Do you like to stay in the countryside?
5 Why do you like to stay in the countryside?
6 Is it difficult to find a job in the countryside?
7 Can this problem be solved?
Youth and Unemployment
Unemployment is the condition of one who is capable of working, actively seeking work, but unable to find it. It is important to note, that to be considered unemployed a person must be an active member of the labour force and in search of work. Statistics on unemployment collected and analyzed by government labour offices in most countries is considered to be the chief indicator of economic health. The problem of the youth unemployment is one of the most important ones. The number of the young people looking for job is constantly increasing. In Russia young people are looking for job not only for the sake of earning money, but because they want to be independent from their parents. Moreover, job gives the young people a chance to adjust themselves to the real life of adults and stir their ambitions.
School-leavers can be part-time workers, seasonal workers, day or casual workers. In general their job is not welcomed. Very often preference is given to adult people. To ensure a balance of working groups in our society the government should work out some social employment programs.
It depends upon the ability of the person, his qualification and an element of luck by which he or she can find a job. Sometimes the graduates are over-qualified for the jobs offered to them. But if the person is persistent he will always find the job he is looking for. Unfortunately not all the required professions are well paid. Underpayment can also be regarded as a kind of unemployment. Certainly to find a job for a student or a graduate is easier than for a school-leaver.
Employers prefer to hire an undergraduate than a school-leaver, who can sit with a baby or wash dishes in a cafe. Unqualified jobs can be good for pupils or students. But if one wants to get a good job and reach something in this life one must continue education.
Some young people are going to enter universities, others are dreaming about colleges, others are intending to work and study at one and the same time.
In Western Europe, unemployment is by far the most important issue. When presented with the choice of 15 different areas of concern, west European nations put unemployment either first or in the top three. Europeans felt that unemployment was the main cause of poverty. Elsewhere in the world, people were likely to choose lack of education as the main reason. Europeans also put great emphasis on insufficient welfare funding.
unemployment - безработица
capable - способный
labour – труд, работа
look for job – искать работу
increase - увеличиваться
earn money – заработать деньги
adjust – приспособить, приводить в порядок
casual - случайный
preference – предпочтение
adult - взрослый
ensure – обеспечивать, гарантировать
hire - нанимать
issue – проблема
Answer the questions:
1 What do you know about unemployment?
2 What do you think about the problem of unemployment in Russia?
3 Is it possible for Russian school-leavers to find any job?
4 Is it easy to find a job for a graduate in Russia?
5 Have you ever tried to apply for a job?
6 What are you going to do after graduating from the university?
7 What do you know about the problem of unemployment in your town?
A business letter
There are certain rules of writing letters. The paper for a letter must be absolutely pure, with even edges. It is desirable to have the firm form of the letter with an emblem of the firm, with its complete name, the post and telegraphic address, with a telephone number, fax and bank properties.
The business letters are printed on a computer on a face side of the sheet. The pages are numbered in the Arabian figures, except for the first. Width of a field from the left side of a sheet must be not less than 2 cm. The text is printed through 1,5-2 intervals. The paragraph begins with a red line, with a deviation of 5 intervals from the edge. It is desirable to avoid division. In the right top corner under the address of the organization which sends the letter the date of departure should be put.
If it is not the first letter to your partner it must begin with the polite reference to the last letter received from him.
If you write to the partner for the first time, it is necessary to begin with the performance of the firm, its purposes and tasks. The text of this material must be in the language of your partner or in English. The letter ends with the words of gratitude for the cooperation. And of course with: "Sincerely yours", etc.
The signature is put on the right party under the formula of politeness. The surname of the signing man is printed under his hand-written signature.
About envelopes. Abroad all large firms have envelopes, on which the same items of information as on the form are repeated. The firm envelope relieves you of the necessity to inform the return address. Abroad the order of writing of an address is as following: first comes "whom", then "where". The first position of the address is the surname of the addressee with the initials before it and one of reductions: Mr (if it is a man) or Mrs (if it is a woman). The second position of the address is the post of your addressee. It indicates that the letter was not accepted as personal. If the addressee at the given moment is absent, the letter will be opened by his assistant. If you want to keep the content of the letter in a confidence, after the surname it is necessary to specify: private (personal, confidential). The following position of the address is the name of the firm. Here it is possible to apply the following reductions:
Company - Co.
Corporation - Corp.
Department - Dept.
Incorporated - Inc.
The number of the house and the name of the street, the name of the city, the name of the state (for the USA, India, etc.) come after. The address ends with the postal index and the name of the country.
The letter to a foreign partner has some canons. For example, the letter begins with recurrence in the left top comer of the address written on an envelope. From the right side and a little below of the address they write the date of departure of the letter. For example:
12 December 1997
December 12, 1997
12th December 1997
December 12th, 1997
Reductions of dates such as 12/XII1997 or 12.12.1997 which are accepted by us in the international correspondence are not used. Here and in the text of the letter only the reductions of some months are accepted:
January - Jan.
February - Feb.
April - Apr.
September - Sept.
October - Oct.
November - Nov.
December - Dec.
From the left side they write an appeal Dear Mr. or Dear Mrs. and the surname of the addressee. After the introductory reference in the English correspondence comma is put, and in the correspondence with the addressee from the USA colon and hyphen are put (Dear Mr.... / Gentleman: -).
By the following line after a designation "Re" (Reference) in business correspondence briefly the theme of the letter is designate, for example: Re: 1997 Moscow Book Fair. In business letters it is accepted to write with the large letter:
• proper nouns, and also adjectives designating the national and state accessory (Russian, English, French etc);
• words in the names of firms and organizations, departments of organizations; words in a designation of a borrowed post (Chief Engineer, Director etc);
• words designating names of cities, republics, streets, areas, areas, hotels, and also numeration of floors, apartments, rooms (12 Wall Street, London, Hotel International, Room 346 etc);
• the complete and reduced names of months and days of week (Saturday, March, Dec. etc);
• the names of the goods, trade marks and some documents (Iron, Coal, Bills of Lading, Charter Party etc).
To write long letters in the business correspondence is not accepted. If your letter is not located in one page, at the end of the sheet it is necessary to put: (continued over) or (see overleaf),
Usually letters end by words Sincerely Yours or Yours and signature with the indication under it of your surname and post.
If you are, for example, on nonresident business trip and have dictated the answer to the urgent letter to your assistant on the phone, he must put the letters pp (per procurationem) against your surname, sign the letter himself and attribute below: Dictated by Mr. <... > and signed in his absence.
A business letter
Mr. A. Green,
Co. British Telecom,
109 Kingsway sty, London,
4 February 2002
Dear Mr. Green,
We would like to inform you that Mr. Petrov is arriving in Little Rock on the 14th February to begin talks with you.
Please make the necessary hotel reservation for him and let us know the name of hotel.
Thank you for your cooperation.
Yours faithfully, Mr. Ivanov.
Co. Mobile Tele Systems
14 Peace st, Moscow,
5 February 2002
Dear Mr. Ivanov,
We regret to inform you that we cannot reserve the hotel accommodation for Mr. Petrov for the week of the 14th February. Our three hotels are completely booked up for the week. They have no rooms available because the National Word Processors Association will be holding their convention in Little Rock during the week of the 14th February. As you will surely understand they have to reserve as many rooms as possible for the members of the Association.
We propose to postpone your visit for a week. We can safely book a room for Mr. Petrov for the 21st February. We hope this will suit you and we look forward to hearing from you soon.
Yours faithfully, Mr. Green.
Business letters concern us in our daily living, especially those of us who live abroad and deal with foreigners.
People write business letters in many situations: concluding contracts, booking a seat in an airplane, reserving hotel accommodation, booking theatre tickets, writing order - letters, letters of inquiry and claim letters (letters of complaint) covering letters, letters of confirmation, letters of guarantee. A business letter, like a friendly or social letter, should make a favorable impression. In order that a letter may create this impression, it should be neatly written or typed, properly spaced on the page and correctly folded in the envelope.
The parts of a business letter. The basic outline for a business letter is that of any letter: the heading, the inside address, the salutation, the body of the letter, the complimentary close and the signature. If you forget something you mean to say in the letter, put it in a PS at the bottom of the page.
developmenl of industry - paзвитие промышленности
volume - объем
a great volume of business - большой объем дел
to speed - ускорять
to speed transactions -ускорять дело
to run up expenses - увеличивать расходы
to a great extent -в значительной степени
to concern -касаться
letter - письмо, буква
inquiry letter -письмо-запрос
claim letter -письмо-жалоба
covering letter -сопроводительное письмо
letter of confirmation -письмо подтверждение
letter of guarantee -гарантийное письмо
to type -печатать на машине
to space -размещать
to fold – сгибать
envelope - конверт
heating - заголовок
inside -адрес получателя
Answer the questions:
1 What are the rules of writing letters?
2 What is the letter begin with?
3 What is he address end with?
4 What words is the letter end by?
5 What kinds of letters do you know?
We live in the society and have to deal with other people all the time. That is why it is necessary to remember about it every day. Not every person is easy to get along because each of us has his own interests and manners. To make everybody comfortable there exist special rules of behaviour for every person. These rules are called etiquette.
The idea of such rules goes back to the times when people began to live in groups and understood that it was better to get along with one another than to quarrel or fight. The first rules for proper social behaviour were developed in ancient Greece and Rome. Much of today's formal etiquette is originated in the French royal courts in the late seventeenth century. For example shaking hands is one of earliest forms of etiquette. Giving somebody his hand a warrior wanted to show that he didn't have any weapons and came in peace.
Today many of us worry about etiquette: we need to know what to say and how to behave in a particular situation. Our language and our manners must be appropriate to the situation.
Each culture has its own system of etiquette and they are sometimes very different. Behaviour that is proper in one culture may be improper in another one.
The basic rules of introducing people in English-speaking countries are:
- a man is introduced to a woman;
- a young person is introduced to an older person;
- a less important person is introduced to a more important person.
The purpose of greeting in all languages is the same: to establish a contact with another person and show friendliness. It is very important to use the correct form of greeting. "Hello" is the universal form and is acceptable in any situation except a very formal introduction.
When British people talk to each other for the first time it is usually considered impolite to ask personal questions such as "How old are you?" or" Are you married?". It is not polite to ask people how much they earn or how much their flat, house or clothes cost. It is better to wait for the person to tell you about it.
Very often it is difficult to stop a conversation and leave a party. Usually people do not stop talking to say good-bye and leave unexpectedly. It is quite normal to say some time before you leave that you are going to do so. If you want to leave a large party early, you should find your host and say good-bye without attracting more attention to your going away.
Speaking about table manners we must say that they are not very strict in Britain, but it is considered rude to eat or to drink noisily. At formal meals the cutlery is placed in the order in which it will be used. The dessert fork or the spoon is laid at the top of your place setting. After each course the knife and the fork should be laid side by side in the middle of the plate. This shows that you have finished and the plate can be removed.
If you want to behave mannerly at table you should follow some simple rules. Here they are:
- Keep your mouth closed when you eat.
- Use a knife and a fork. Hold them correctly.
- Don't take bread with a fork.
- Don't read at the table when you eat.
- Keep your elbows off the table.
- Don't say you don’tlike food.
It is considered impolite to smoke between courses unless your host says otherwise. It is polite to ask for the permission before you smoke in other people's homes. Today inBritain smoking is forbidden in many public places: on the underground, on stations, in shops and in cinemas.
It is important and necessary to learn to be a good speaker and an attentive listener because if a person speaks well and listens well, he can explain the facts in a simple way. A good listener understands the people better, makes friends and mixes with the surrounding people easily. People understand a good speaker better and more willingly become friendly. So the majority of people want to learn to be a good speaker and an attentive listener. There are some rules for them to follow and we must always keep them when we talk or listen.
1 Look at the people whom you are talking to.
2 Don't play with the pencils, erasers or other things when you speak. Keep your hands down. Stand naturally and still.
3 Speak correctly, clearly, distinctly and loud enough. Don't talk too loud.
4 Speak in a pleasant, calm, quiet, polite voice; make your voice friendly and cheerful.
5 Talk about the things that will interest every one.
6 Don't speak too long or too much, or all the time. Take turns.
7 Don't interrupt the people when they are talking. Say "Excuse me", "Pardon me", I’m sorry".
8 Be polite. Don't say anything that can hurt the feelings of someone present.
9 Keep to the topic. Tell the things in the right order. Speak about the things that happened first, then about the things that happened next.
10 Be attentive when you listen to a speaker and follow his or her story.
11 Show your interest in what other people say,
12 Remember that you listen not only with your ears but with your mind.
to get along - ладить, находиться в хороших отношениях
to quarrel -ссориться
behaviour – поведение
to quarrel or fight – ссориться или драться
to originate – возникать
shaking hands – пожатие рук
warrior - воин
to come in peace - приходить с миром
to be appropriate to the situation – соответствовать ситуации
strict - строгий
acceptable - приемлемый
table manners - правила поведения за столом
side by side - рядом
to keep elbows off the table - некластьлоктинастол
unless – если не
otherwise – по другому, иначе
smoking is forbidden – курение запрещено
to explain in a simple way - объяснить просто (доступно)
to mix with people - сходиться с людьми
to take turns - соблюдать очередность
to hurt the feelings - оскорблять чувства
to keep to the topic-придерживаться темы.
Answer the questions:
1 Where were the first rules for proper social behaviour developed?
2 What are the basic rules of introducing people in English-speaking countries?
3 What is the universal form of greeting?
4 What are the basic rules of communication?
5 Are you a good speaker or a good listener?
Applying for a Job
Time flies, and one day I will have to look for the job. It is very difficult to find the job you like. The job people usually look for should be well paid and suit them. To find a proper job one should be able to write a letter of job application, curriculum vitae (CV) = resume(American version), a short written account of your education and past employment.
To write a job application you should know some job-winning tips from professionals:
1 Put your address, telephone number and date in the top right-hand corner and the name of the person you are applying to on the left, level with the date. Write the company name and address below.
Leave a line between paragraphs.
2 First paragraph — a polite one-sentence opening explanation of why you are writing.
3 Tell them you know that they are busy people but stress that your CV proves you are worthy of their time too.
4 Describe yourself like a product on sale. List your skills and such personal qualities as high motivation, enthusiasm and adaptability.
5 If you have qualifications, list them briefly.
6 A positive attitude is important, so explain why it's the only firm you want to work for.
7 Ask for an interview. Say you are happy to come in for a chat at any time, even if there are no jobs available now. Thank the readers for their time and remind them you are waiting for a reply. Use "Yours sincerely" if you're writing to a named person and "Faithfully" if you started "Dear Sir/Madam". Sign your letter at the bottomleft and print your name clearly below.
|Person ------------- Company (name) ---------- Date ---------|
30 Henry Court
I am writing to enquire about the possibility of employment with your company. I can offer a variety of skills from practical to clerical, any role would suit at present time. I enclose my CV for your attention.
For the past two years I have been engaged in casual voluntary work at Queens Medical Center. This has kept me busy and has led to meeting new people. A position at your company, however, would allow me to resume a working role.
I am adaptable, reliable and willing to retrain. From packing to office work, my past experience may be useful to you, given the opportunity.
If there is a position available at this time, I can be contacted on (telephone No) in the afternoons and would be more than willing to come down for an interview. If not then would you please keep my details to hand for the near future.
Always type it on unlined white paper, preferably a single sheet.
Write your name, address and telephone number.
Put your health record, date of birth and marital status.
In the next section, note down your education. Put any qualifications on the next line.
Next, detail your work history, starting with your most recent job. Give dates, employers and describe your duties.
List hobbies and interests and put extra information in a separate section.
End by saying that two referees are available on request - not naming them leaves you free to choose the best ones for particular jobs. Remember the longer an application, the less chance it has of being read.
Never send a photo-copied letter - it looks as though you don't care.
Always be positive and never apologize for being You.
|CURRICULUM VTTAE (CV).|
|NAME||Robert Edward Bateman.|
|ADDRESS||28 Grow Road, West Clapham|
|DATE AND PLACE OF BIRTH||9th September 1968, London|
|EDUCATION||Ripton County School|
|Grant College of Further|
|PREVIOUS EXPERIENCE||2 years of a translator for|
|publisher of dictionaries|
|3 years of teaching English in|
|INTERESTS||Reading, travelling, art.|