TEXT A. British Universities




ВВОДНЫЙ УРОК

HIGHER EDUCATION

 

Section I. WORD LIST

 

  Index*
academic [xkq'demIk] a академический, университетский academic year учебный год D D
accommodation [q‚kOmq'deISn] n жилье D
activity [xk'tIvIty] n деятельность D
admission [qd'mISn] n прием (зд.) в вуз A
admit [qd'mIt] v принимать A
applicant[xplIkqnt]nабитуриент T
apply [q'plaI] v обращаться T
appoint [q'poInt] v назначать A
approach [q'proutS] n подход А
assignment[q'saInmqnt] n задание T
award [q'wO:d] v награждать C
chancellor['tSRnsqlq] n зд. ректор университета B
complete[kqmp'lJt] v завершать A
consist(of)[kqn'sIst] v состоять (из) T
council['kaunsl] n совет A, D
course[kLs] n курс (учебный) T
curriculum[kq'rIkjulqm] n учебный план extra-curricular a внеаудиторный A
dean[dJn]n декан A
degree[dI'grJ] n степень confer a degree присвоить степень Bachelor’s ['bxtSqlqz] degree степень бакалавра Master’s ['mRstqz] degree степень магистра A   A, T A, T
departmentn кафедра, отделение English language department кафедра английского языка extramural department заочное отделение А
diploma[dIp'loumq] n диплом T
discuss[dis'kAs] v обсуждать B
discussion[dis'kASqn]nобсуждение B
education[‚edZV'keISn] n образование, обучение higher education высшее образование secondary education среднее образование free education бесплатное образование compulsory education обязательное образование A T T
* Буквы в индексе означают: А, В, С, D – тексты А, В, С, D: T, T1, T2 – тесты/контрольные работы, варианты 1, 2.  
enter['entq] v поступать (в вуз) to enter the University поступать в университет B
exam[Ig'zxm] (examination) n экзамен to take exams сдавать экзамены to pass exams выдержать экзамены final examination (finals) выпускной экзамен A
faculty['fxkqltI] n факультет A
found['faund] v основывать, создавать C
graduate['grxdjuIt] n выпускник B
graduate['grxdjueIt] v заканчивать (вуз) graduate from the university закончить университет graduate with honours закончить вуз с отличием A, B
graduationn окончание вуза T
grant[grRnt] n стипендия A, D
the humanities[hju'mxnItIz] n гуманитарные науки T
instruction[in'strAkSqn]n зд. обучение B
job[dZOb] n работа A
junior['dZu:njq] a младший T
lecture['lektSq] n лекция to attend lectures посещать лекции to deliver a lecture читать лекцию A
lecturer['lektSqrq] n лектор, преподаватель университета C
listnперечень, список B
obtain[qb'teIn] v получать, достигать T
offer['Ofq] v предлагать T
optional['OpSqnql] a факультативный B
postgraduate['poust'grxdjuIt] a последипломный postgraduate (student) n аспирант postgraduate education последипломное образование (магистратура, аспирантура) A
represent[‚reprI'zent] v представлять D
research[rI'sWtS] n научно-исследовательская работа A, Т
responsible[rIs'pOnsqbl] (for) a ответственный (за) A, D
science['saIqns] n наука A
scientist['saIqntIst] n ученый A
scientific [‚saIqn'tIfIk] a научный A
self-governing ['self'gAvqnIN] обладающий правом на самоуправление B
senior ['sJnjq] a старший T
session ['seSn] n сессия A
settle ['setl] v решать D
to settle problemsрешать проблемы  
society [sq'saIqtI] n общество D
specialize ['speSqlaIz] (in) v специализироваться(пo)  
subject ['sAbdZIkt] n предмет B
success [sqk'ses] n ycпex C
successful [sqk'sesful] a успешный T
thesis ['TJsIs] n диссертация A
train [treIn] v обучать A
tutorial [tju:'tLrIql] a tutorial systemсистема прикрепления студентов к преподавателям B B

 

Section II. READING MATERIAL

 

TEXT A. British Universities

Task: read the text and do the tasks that follow.

There are more than 90 universities in Britain located in England, in Scotland, in Northern Ireland and in Wales. The two oldest universities in England are Oxford and Cambridge. They date from the Middle Ages. Oxford is the oldest of these two universities, it is more philosophical, classical, theological. The history of Oxford began in 1249, that of Cambridge – in 1348. Among the English universities Oxford and Cambridge have a special eminence, and they are different from the others.

England had no other universities, apart from Oxford and Cambridge, until the nineteenth century. The universities which were founded between 1850 and 1930, including London University, are known as redbrick universities (they were called so because that was the favourable building material of the time). Redbrick universities were built to provide a liberal education for the poorer boys and to give technological training. They are in London, Durham, Manchester, Birmingham, Leeds, Sheffield, Bristol, Nottingham, etc. The University of London is the largest of them.

The universities which were founded after the Second World War are called «the new universities». They are in Staffordshire, Kent, Essex, Lancaster, Sussex, York. Some of them quickly became popular because of their modern approach to university courses.

All British Universities are private institutions. Every university is independent, autonomous and responsible only to its own governing council. Although they all receive financial support from the state, the Department of Education and Science has no control over their regulations, curriculum, examinations, appointment of staff, or the way they spend money. The number and type of faculties differ from university to university.

Each university decides each year how many students it supposes to admit. The admission to universities is by examination or selection (interviews). The students have to pay fees and living costs1 but every student may receive from the local authority of the place where he lives a personal grant which is enough to pay lodging and food – unless his parents are rich. Most students take jobs in the summer for about six weeks, but they do not normally work during the academic session.

Students who pass examinations at the end of studies get Bachelor's degree. The first postgraduate degree is normally that of Master conferred for a thesis based on at least one year’s fulltime work. Universities are centres of research and many postgraduates are engaged in further research for a Doctor’s degree (PhD)2. The British government does not think to build more new universities. There is a tendency to expand the older ones. Almost all British universities are similar to Russian universities, with a central administration in the main building, various faculties, and various departments within the faculties. Professors run departments, deans rule the faculties and at the top of the hierarchy is the Vice Chancellor, equivalent to our Rector. Some kind of council helps govern the university.

 

Notes:

1 To pay fees and living costs – платить за обучение и жилье

2 PhD (Doctor of Philosophy) – доктор философии (высшая ученая степень по любой

научной отрасли)

EXERCISES

 

Ex. 1. Pronounce the international words correctly.

'history 'popular phi'losophy techno'logical

'course 'special au'tonomous theolo'gical

'session 'private se'lection admini'stration

'interview 'normal de'partment ,edu'cation

'student 'liberal fi'nance ,uni'versity

'centre 'modern ma'terial ,insti'tution

'faculty 'interesting the'ology exami'nation

 

Ex. 2. Analyse the morphological structure of the following words:

 

N →Adj V → N

finance – financial philosophy – philosophical theology – theological technology – technological history – historical education – educational difference – different independence – independent autonomy– autonomous divide – division educate – education found – foundation decide – decision regulate – regulation examine – examination appoint – appointment govern – government pay – payment

Ex. 3. Transform as in the models:

Model 1: to educate people – education of people

to found the university, to regulate the studies, to examine students, to appoint the tutors;

Model 2: degree of a bachelor – bachelor's degree

degree of a master, life of the students, parents of the students, the report of the scientist;

Model 3: Department of Education – Education Department

centres of research, colleges of the University, history of Oxford, faculty of Law.

Ex. 4. Match English and Russian equivalents:

1) higher education 2) private institutions 3) university curriculum 4) to receive grants 5) local authority 6) academic year 7) to pass exams 8) research centre a) получать стипендию b) местные власти c) учебный год d) сдать экзамены e) учебный план университета f) высшее образование g) научно-исследовательский центр h) частные учебные заведения

 

Ex. 5. Choose the right word:

1. Oxford is ... of all British universities.

a) the youngest b) the oldest c) the poorest

2. All British universities are ... institutions.

a) state b) old c) private

3. The ... to the Universities is by examination or selection.

a) admission b) regulation c) innovation

4. Most students take ... in the summer for about six weeks.

a) exams b) jobs c) accommodation

5. The students ... grants.

a) spend b) receive c) pay

 

Ex. 6. Complete the sentences:

1. The oldest Universities in Britain are ... . 2. New universities became popular because .... 3. Every university is independent, and responsible only to ... . 4. Students who pass exams at the end of studies get ... . 5. There is a tendency to expand .... 6. The first postgraduate degree is … .

 

Ex. 7. Insert the right word:

(British, Oxford, Britain, Oxford and Cambridge, Open University)

There are 47 universities in ... . The oldest universities are .... The history of ... began in 1249. These two universities are different from all other ... universities. Redbrick universities were built to give technological training. ... universities are private institutions, but they receive financial support from the state. The British government does not think to build new universities. The most interesting innovation is ... .

 

Ex. 8. Review the following statements and mark them true (T) or false (F). Correct the statements which are false.

1. All British universities are private institutions. 2. The admission to the University is by examination or selection. 3. The Department of Education and Science controls appointment of staff. 4. The number and type of faculties is the same at all British universities. 5. Students never work in summer, they work during the academic year. 6. The first postgraduate degree is that of Master. 7. Universities are centres of research.

 

Ex. 9. Answer the following questions.

1. How many universities are there in Great Britain? 2. What are the oldest British universities? 3. What Redbrick universities do you know? 4. Why did “the new universities” quickly become popular? 5. All British universities are private institutions, aren't they? 6. What are the academic conferred at British Universities? 7. Universities are centres of research, aren’t they?

 

Ex. 10. Give a brief summary of the text. Do it according to the following plan:

1. The title of the text is ...

2. The text is devoted to ...

3. It consists of ...

4. The first passage deals with ...

It is said that …

5. The second (third, fourth, etc.) passage deals with ...

It is stressed that …

6. The main idea of the text is ...

 

TEXT B. Oxbridge

Task: scan the text and answer the questions that follow.

Two universities, Oxford and Cambridge, Oxbridge, as they are sometimes jointly called, for seven hundred years dominated British education, and today they dominate more than ever. The students of Oxbridge make up one of the most elite elites in the world. Many great men studied here. Among them Bacon, the philosopher, Milton, the poet, Cromwell, the soldier, and Newton, the scientist. Many prominent Conservative and Labour leaders and ministers, members of the Royal family studied there too.

Today Oxford and Cambridge have less than one-tenth of all British university students (less than 1% of Britain's population). The candidates are chosen mainly on the results of the written examinations. A large per cent of Oxford applicants come from public schools. Only since the 1870s women have been admitted and the women's colleges constitute only 12% of the Oxbridge population.

Both Oxford and Cambridge consist of self-governing colleges where students live. The students have lectures and tutorials. Each student has a tutor who tells him how to write papers on the subjects he is studying, gives a list of books that might be helpful in writing essays. Tutors are responsible for the students' progress. Lectures and seminars are optional. At the end of three or four years students face “Finals” (final examinations). They sit for three hours writing answers to the questions on the subjects they studied.

 

1. What universities dominate British education?

2. What great men studied at Oxbridge?

3. Who is responsible for the students' progress?

4. What is a specific system of instruction at Oxbridge?

 

 

...





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