B Complete the information below.

1. The executive branch is responsible for …….…….…..… .

2. The executive is subject to …………………….….…..… .

3. Political executives include ……………….……….….… .

4. The executive is often delegated some …………..…...… .

5. The executive may also have powers to ………..….….… .


C Make the sentences True or False according to the information in the text. Justify your answers by reference to the text.

1. The executive is responsible for the day-to-day management of the state.

2. The executive is identified by the leader of a political party.

3. Political executives include not only chief executives.

4. Sometimes the executive is delegated some legislative power.

5. The executive may not have to issue legislation, even in emergency cases.


D Make these verbs and nouns as they occur together in the text.

verbs issue delegate include share assign
nouns powers executive power the role legislation heads of state

E Translate these word combinations.

to issue деньги / законы / приказ

to delegate полномочия / ответственность / представитель

to include главы государств/ важные вопросы / различные задачи

to share власть / обязанность / ответственность

to assign роль / ответственность / обязанности

F Give the Russian equivalents for the following word combinations.

to be responsible for; day-to day management; to include heads of state; to issue legislation; to share power; whereas; to be subject to; with the consent; a chief executive; a government employee; to wield political power; to delegate powers; the scope of authority; a state of emergency.

G Learn the active vocabulary

a government employee to be subject to; a chief executive to share power; the scope of authority to assign the role (to); a state of emergency to wield powers; day-to-day management to delegate powers

H Make a summary of the text

The Judiciary

In the law, the judiciary is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. The term is also used to refer collectively to the judges, magistrates and other adjudicators who form the core of a judiciary, as well as the support personnel

who keep the system running smoothly.

Under the doctrine of the separation of powers, ‘the judiciary is the branch of government primarily responsible for interpreting the law’. It construes the laws enacted by the legislature.

Like legislators and executives, judges are major participants in the policy-making process. The process of judicial decision making, or adjudication, is distinctive, however, for it is concerned with specific cases in which an individual has come into conflict with society by violating its norms or in which individuals have come into conflict with one another.

In common law jurisdiction, courts interpret law, including constitutions, statutes, and regulations. In civil law jurisdictions, courts interpret the law, but are, at least in theory, prohibited from creating law. In socialist law, the primary responsibility for interpreting the law belongs to the legislature.

Established court systems are found in all advanced political systems. Usually there are two judicial hierarchies, one dealing with civil and the other with criminal cases, each with a large number of

local courts, a lesser number at the level of the province or the region, and one or more courts at the national level. This is the pattern of judicial organization in Britain, for example. In some countries-for example, in France- the distinction is not between courts dealing with criminal cases and other courts dealing with civil cases but rather between those that handle all civil and criminal cases and those that deal with administrative cases. Reflecting the federal organization of its government, the United States has two court systems: one set of national courts and 50 sets of state courts.

By contrast, Germany, which is federal in government organization, possesses only a single integrated court system. Local courts are found in all systems and are usually of two types. The first type deals with petty offences and may include a traffic court, a municipal court, a small-claims court. The second

type, sometimes called trial courts, are courts of first instance in which most cases of major importance are begun. In all systems there are national supreme courts that hear appeals and exercise original jurisdiction in cases of the greatest importance.


A Answer the questions to the text:

a) What countries are mentioned in the text?

b) In what connection are the United States and Germany mentioned?

c) find the sentences which describe:

the definition of the judiciary under the doctrine of the separation of powers;

the structure of established court systems;

types of local courts.




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