B Arrange these sentences in the logical order according to the information in the text.





1. Local courts are usually of two types.

2. Usually, there two judicial hierarchies in established court systems.

3. Judicial system is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state.

4. Judges are major participants in the policy-making process.

5. The judiciary construes the laws enacted by the legislature.

VOCABULARY PRACTICE

C Which of the word combinations below associate with the judiciary characteristics? Translate these word combinations into Russian.

to create laws; to administer justice; to deal with civil cases; to grant equal rights; to dissolve Parliament; small-claims courts; to hear appeals; to possess two chambers; to resolve disputes; to interpret the law; to amend laws.

D Match the first half of each sentence with the most appropriate second half.

1. Judicial system is …………………………………………

2. The judiciary is ……………………………………………

3. Judges are …………………………………………………

4. In common law jurisdiction, courts ………………………

5. There are usually two judicial hierarchies in ……………..

6. Established court systems ………………………………...

7. National supreme courts ………………………….………

a) ……………………………………………... interpret law.

b) ………………………… are found in all political systems.

c) ……………………………….. the branch of government responsible for interpreting the law.

d) ……………………………………………… hear appeals.

e) …………….. a system of courts which administer justice.

f) ………………………………... established court systems.

g) ………... major participants in the policy-making process.

E Find in the text the equivalents for the following word combinations.

судебная система (власть); отправлять правосудие; разрешать спорные вопросы; разделение власти; отвечать за что-л.; толковать закон; вводить закон (постановлять); принятие решений; нарушать нормы; обычное право; запрещать; иметь дело с; гражданские дела; уголовные

дела; суд первой инстанции; верховный суд; рассматривать апелляционные жалобы.

F Learn the active vocabulary.

judiciary to administer justice; power separation to resolve disputes; a legislator to interpret the law

a common law to hear appeals; a civil law to exercise jurisdiction

 

G Make a summary of the text.__

UNIT 10

ELECTORAL SYSTEM

Types of Electoral Systems

The choice of the electoral system is a question of great importance in our democracy. To a significant degree electoral systems define how the body politic operates. As Farell points out: ‘they are the cogs which keep the wheels of democracy properly functioning’. The choice of system raises issues about the nature of representative government and the purpose of elections.

In making that selection, much depends on what the electoral system is supposed to achieve. Obviously, it is desirable that it produces an outcome which is acceptable to as many people as possible. Fundamental to the issue is the question ‘What is the point of voting?’ Is it primarily choose a government, or is it to choose membership of the legislature? Is the emphasis placed upon electing a strong administration which has broad support in the community, or is it to elect an assembly which accurately reflects prevailing

opinion? On the continent the emphasis is upon choosing a representative assembly, and then from its midst finding a government which commands sufficient support-usually, a coalition government. In Britain, which has tended to pride itself upon its tradition of strong, single-party government, importance is attached to ensuring that there is an effective administration in place.

There are two broad categories of electoral system. It is, however, possible to combine elements of the two categories. The two categories are:

1. Majoritarian systems, which are designed to leave one party with a parliamentary majority. In this category, we may include:

 First Past the Post (FPTP);

 The alternative vote (AV);

 The double ballot.

2. Proportional systems. There are many different forms of proportional representation, all of which are designed to ensure that the number of seats allocated in the legislature is broadly in the line with the number of votes won by each party in the election.

3. Mixed systems. These represent a compromise between majoritarian and proportional systems.

There is no perfect electoral system, appropriate to every country at every time. Indeed, it is quite possible to have different types of election within a particular country.

READING PRACTICE

A Answer the questions to the text:

a) What is the role of electoral system?

b) What is the main goal of voting in Great Britain?

c) What is the main goal of voting in European countries?

B Mark the statements True or False according to the information in the text. Justify your





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