Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form of the Passive Voice.

Contract Law

1. Give English equivalents of the following word combinations:


1. Сторона (договора) - Party

2. Кауза, основание договора - Consideration

3. Составить договор – Form a contract

4. Принять условия договора – accept he terms

5. Договор, имеющий юридическую силу – Valid contract

6. Заключать договор – Conclude a contract

7. Имеющий обязательную силу, обязательный к исполнению - Binding

8. Отвергать предложение – Reject the offer

9. Встречное предложение, контроферта – Counter offer

10. Обязательные (существенные) условия договора – Essential terms

11. Предмет договора – Subject of he contract

12. Права и обязанности сторон – Rights and obligations of the parties

13. Устный/письменный договор – Oral/written contract

14. Возбудить судебное дело против кого-либо – To file a lawsuit against someone

15. Нарушение договора – Breach of contract

16. Пострадавшая сторона – Injured party

17. Ущерб, компенсация за причиненный ущерб - Damages

18. Расторгнуть договор – Termination of contract

19. Передача прав по договору третьему лицу – Contract assignment

20. Присудить выплату компенсации – Award damages


2. Translate into English:


1. Договор будет иметь юридическую силу, только если одна сторона принимает предложение другой стороны.

The contract will be valid if one party accepts the offer of another party.

2. Они достигли соглашения по цене, но не смогли договориться о сроках.

They have reached an agreement on price but failed to agree on terms.

3. Компания нарушила договор продажи, и пострадавшая сторона возбудила против них судебное дело.

The company has breached the sale contract and he injured party has filed a lawsuit against him.

4. Этот договор не имеет юридическую силу, потому что он не был оформлен на бумаге (в письменной форме).

This contract is not valid because it was not put down in writing.

5. Суд присудил 2000$ компенсации за убытки из-за нарушения договорных обязательств.

The court has ordered $2000 damages because of the breach of contract.

6. Основание договора – это обещание обеих сторон что-то дать друг другу, одностороннее обещание не приводит к заключению договора.

Consideration – is the promise of both parties to give each other something. One side promises does not lead to formation of a contract.

7. Три необходимых требования для заключения договора: согласие сторон, кауза (основание договора) и намерение создать юридические отношения.

Three necessary aspects for formation of contract: agreement between parties, consideration, intention to bind legally.

8. После 4 часов переговоров они, наконец, подписали договор.

After 4 hours of negotiation they have finally signed the contract.

9. Можем ли мы расторгнуть договор с этой фирмой, если она не нарушила по нему никаких условий?

Can we terminate the contract will this firm if they haven’t breached the contract.

10. Покупая какие-либо товары или услуги, мы вступаем в договорные отношения. When we buy services or goods we enter into contractual relations.


3. Answer the following questions:

1. What is necessary for a valid contract to be formed? Offer by a party that is accepted by other party.

2. What is counter-offer? When and why does it occur? New offer to the first party which then may by accepted or rejected. When offer and acceptance do not match.

3. What are rights of parties? Positive aspects which a party wants to get from a contract (receiving a particular benefit – goods). What are obligations? Things that a party has to do or give up to get the rights in the contract (Obligation to deliver goods). Explain the terms and give your examples.

4. What is breach of contract? What happens if a contract is breached? Give examples of possible remedies for a breach of contract. When a party does not do what it is required to do under a contract. The Injured party files a law suit or gets a court order to perform the contract. (Filing a lawsuit, court order for a specific performance)

5. What’s assignment? What’s the difference between an assignor and an assignee? The transfer of rights to another party under a contract. Assignor is the one who gives the rights to the assignee.



Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form of the Passive Voice.

1. Every point must BE WRITTEN (write), oral agreement isn’t enough.

2. The copy of the contract WAS POSTED (post) yesterday, you’ll receive it in 5 days.

3. All my offers to go out WERE REJECTED (reject) by this cold beauty, my heart WAS BROKEN (broken)!

4. Your promise to help me with the report WAS NOT KEPT (keep), I will never count on you again.

5. According to the terms of the contract, the house HAS BEEN BUILT (build) by the end of the year.

6. If we breach any terms of this contract, we WILL BE SUED (sue) by the injured party.

7. Our company signed the contract without delays, because we WERE OFFERED (offer) generous conditions.

8. Any further actions WILL NOT BE TAKEN(take) by our lawyers if you accept our offer.

9. 30000$ of damages WERE AWARDED (award) by the court last Friday to cover the losses “Stein&Fredricks” had suffered.

10. Shipment by the 30th of August IS REQUIRED (require) according to the essential terms of the current contract.



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