| 1. Переведите на русский язык.
| 1. Her grandmother can knit very well. 2. I can answer the questions. They are very easy. 3. This trip is too expensive for me. I can't afford it. 4. She can type. She can speak well on the telephone. She hopes she can find the job she's looking for. 5. Can You go to have lunch with me? - I'm sorry. I can't. 6. Mike can run very fast. 7. They can understand French. 8. Kate can speak English very well. 9. My brother can come and help you in the garden. 10. Can you speak Spanish?
|| 1.Ее бабушка может вязать очень хорошо.2.Я могу ответить на вопросы.Они очень легкие.3.Это путешествие очень дорогое для меня.Я не могу себе этого позволить.4.Она умеет печатать на машике.Она умеет хорошо говорить по телефону.Она надеется ,что сможет найти работу которую ищет.5.Ты можешь сходить пообедать со мной?-извини.Я не могу.6.Майк умеет очень быстро бегать.7.Они умеют понимать французский.8.Кейт может разговаривать по английски очень хорошо.9.Мой брат может прийти и помочь тебе в саду.10.Ты умеешь разговаривать по испански?
| 2.Переведите на русский язык.
| 1. May I invite Nick to our house? 2. You may go now. 3. If you have done your homework, you may go for a walk. 4. Don’t go to the wood alone: you may lose your way. 5. May I go to the post office with Mike? 6. May I take Pete’s bag? 7. Don’t give the vase to the child: he may break it. 8. May we take notes with a pencil? 9. You may not cross the street when the light is red. 10. May I shut the door?
|| 1.Я могу пригласить Ника в наш дом?2.Сейчас ты можещь идти.3.Если ты сделал свою домашнюю работу,то можешь идти гулять.4.Не ходи гулять в лес одна(один),ты можешь заблудится.5.Можно мне сходить на почту с Майком?6.Можно я возьму сумку Пита?7.не давай вазу детям,они могут сломать(разбить )ее.8.я могу делать заметки карандашом?9.Тебе нельзя пересекать улицу(дорогу) когда горит красный свет.10.могу я закрыть дверь?
| 3. Вставьте глаголы may или can.
| 1. … I come in? 2. Let me look at your exercises. I … be able to help you. 3. I … not swim, because until this year the doctor did not allow me to be more than two minutes in the water. But this year he says I … stay in for fifteen minutes if I like, so I’m going to learn to swim. 4. Libraries are quite free, and any one who likes … get books there. 5. I … come and see you tomorrow if I have time. 6. Take your raincoat with you: it … rain today. 7. Do you think you … do that? 8. I … finish the work tomorrow if no one bothers me any more. 9. … we come and see you next Sunday at three o’clock in the afternoon? 10. What time is it? – It … - be about six o’clock, but I am not sure. 11. Only a person who knows the language very well … answer such a question.
|| 1.May.2.(be able-мочь,быть в состоянии)-второй модальный не нужен. I am (will) able to help you 3.can,may.4.can.5.can.6.may.7.can.8.can.
| 4. Вставьте модальные глаголы may (might) или can (could).
| 1. … you help me? 2. I … imagine her speaking in public: I knew that she was so shy. 3. Something was wrong with the car: he … not start it. 4. A fool … ask more questions than a wise man … answer. 5. She asked me if she … use my telephone. 6. … I use your pen? 7. … I find a pen on that table? 8. You … read this book: you know the language well enough. 9. You … take this book: I don’t need it. 10. … help you? 11. … I ask you to help me? 12. The school was silent: nothing … be heard in the long dark corridors. 13. Waiting … be endless, you know. 14. … you tell me the nearest way to the city museum? 15. They … think that I am too weak to take part in the excursion, but I am strong enough to do any kind of hard work, indeed. 16. He knew this period of history very well: he had read everything on the subject he … find in the rich university library.
| TEXT № 6 «ROLLING STOCK»
| Railroad trains are pulled by locomotives. But some locomotives can push as well as pull. These locomotives are especially useful on commuter lines.
Locomotives can be classified into two groups according to the work they do. Road locomotives haul freight or passenger trains. Switching locomotives, or switch engines, move cars from track to track in rail yards.
Almost all locomotives can also be classified into three groups according to how they are powered.
Diesel-electric locomotives use oil-burning diesel engines to turn electric generators. The electric power produced by the generators runs the driving mechanisms that turn the locomotive's wheels.
Electric locomotives work much as diesel-electrics do. But instead of producing their own electric power, they get it from wires suspended above the track or from an electrified third rail.
Steam locomotives burn coal or fuel oil to produce steam. The force of the steam runs the locomotive.
A few trains are powered by two other kinds of locomotives. Gas-turbine electric locomotives use the force of hot gases to run turbines, which in turn operate electric generators. The power produced by the generators runs the trains. Diesel-hydraulic locomotives use diesel engines to produce energy transmitted to the driving mechanisms by means of fluids under pressure.
Railroads in the United States operate about 20,000 locomotives. Almost all of them are diesel-electric. Only a few US railroads use electric locomotives. Railroads in most industrial countries operate both diesel-electric and electric locomotives. Steam locomotives are still used in China, India, and some other countries.
Railroad cars are grouped into two general categories: passenger cars and freight cars. Each car has a coupler at each end. This device links the cars together. The first automatic car couplers were designed in 1873. Cars also have air brakes connected to a master control in the locomotive. Railroad air brakes were patented by George Westinghouse in 1869 but were put into common practice only in the beginning of the 20th century.
On most passenger trains the cars consist mainly of coaches. The majority of coaches have seats for 50 to 90 passengers. Double-deck coaches on commuter trains seat from 150 to 170 people. Some passenger train cars include baggage cars, dining cars and sleeping cars.
Freight cars differ in shape and size according to the freight they are designed to haul. They range from boxcars for carrying general freight, to specially designed cars for new automobiles. Many newer freight cars are longer and have been designed to carry different kinds of load. Flat cars, for example, are specially equipped to hold truck trailers or containers.
Railroads have greatly improved the safety of railroad cars over years. One of the chief improvements has been to reduce the danger from overheated journal boxes. On older cars, each end of an axle turned on solid surfaces enclosed in an oil-filled journal box. A box might become overheated due to the lack of lubrication and so become a hotbox. A hotbox might cause a derailment.
On newer cars, the use of roller bearings at the ends of axles has helped to reduce the number of hotboxes. Railroads have also installed electronic devices called hotbox detectors at various points alongside railroad tracks. As trains pass by, the devices detect hotboxes. This information is transmitted to a central control station and cars with hotboxes are removed from the train.
Railcars are railroad cars with a built-in power unit. These cars do not need a locomotive, because they provide their own power. A railcar may be diesel-electric, electric, or gas-turbine electric.
Some railcars are intended for carrying passengers and form railcar trains. These trains include gas-turbine electric trains called turbo trains that operate between the cities of Germany, France, Italy, Spain, the UK, Japan, Canada, the USA and some other countries.
Some self-propelled cars are designed for railroad maintenance. Each car carries special equipment to do a particular job along a railroad line. Some cars have track-laying machinery or machinery for inspecting or repairing tracks; others carry such equipment as snowplows or weed cutters.
| ЗАДАНИЯ К ТЕКСТУ № 6:
Упр.I. Замените подчеркнутые слова синонимами из текста:
| 1. Engines at the head of the train haul trains along the line.
2. Locomotives that can pull as well as push trains are especially efficient on suburbanrailroads.
3. Locomotives can be driven by different kinds of power.
4. Most great industrial countries have a lot of both electric and diesel-electric engines in operation.
5. Railway cars are classified into 2 groups: passenger cars and freight cars.
6. The first automatic car couplers and air brakes were invented in the 19th century.
7. Most passenger trains are made up of passenger cars.
8. Many modern freight cars are intended for carrying various kinds of cargoes.
9. An overheated box may result in a wreck.
10. Railcars do not requireengines.
11. Gas-turbine electric trains are designed to transport people between the biggest cities of Europe, the USA, Japan, Canada, at very high speeds.
| Упр. II. Соотнесите синонимы:
3. to carry
4. rail yard
6. to produce
9. to include
10. to need
13. to couple
15. to range
18.derailment(cход с рельсов)
19. to remove
|| a. station
e. to comprise
f. to link
g. to vary
j. to eliminate (устранять)
m. to generate
o. to transport
s. to require
| Упр. III. Вставьте слова в предложения:
about, and, by, considerably, due to, formerly, in, now, nowadays, of, on, or, than, to, with
| Railway passenger cars (coaches) are … many different types … vary … … design … … the various kinds … traffic to be handled.
…, all passenger cars were made … wood … equipped … hand brakes, coal … wood burning stoves … oil lamps.
…, all coaches are made … steel. They are much safer … the old ones … carry a greater number … passengers. Comfort … sanitary conditions are … given great attention.
A typical modern coach is … 25 m long, seats 48 passengers, weighs 50 tons, is carried … four-wheeled trucks … is … steel construction. All coaches are fitted … a hot water heating system … lighted … electricity. Improved seats, pleasant interior … air conditioning systems have added … the comfort … railway travelers.
| Упр. IV. Найдите в тексте английский эквиваленты:
| - тянуть и толкать поезда
- в зависимости от выполняемой работы
- дизельные двигатели на жидком топливе
- приводить в движение электрические генераторы
- колеса локомотива
- контактная сеть
- жидкости, находящиеся под давлением
- постоянная эксплуатация
- автосцепка вагонов
- пневматические тормоза
- большая часть пассажирских вагонов
- двухъярусные вагоны пригородных поездов
- вагоны-платформы для перевозки грузовых трейлеров
- снизить опасность возникновения перегретых букс
- стать причиной железнодорожной аварии
- детекторы перегретых букс
- встроенный энергоблок
- оборудование для ремонта и эксплуатации пути
| Упр.V. Заполните пропуски согласно информации текста:
| 1. Some locomotives can … as well as … .
2. These locomotives are especially useful on … lines.
3. According to the … they perform, locomotives are divided into … and … .
4. … locomotives are the oldest ones.
5. Nowadays, … and …-… locomotives are most widely used on railroads.
6. Railway cars include … cars and … cars.
7. … carry passengers only.
8. There are different kinds of … cars depending on the loads carried.
9. … journal boxes increase the danger of … .
10. Special devices are used to … hotboxes.
11. Railcars do not need … .
12. They are equipped with …-… power units.
13. … carry passengers between the … cities of France, Germany, Italy, Spain and some other countries.
14. Some …-… cars carry special … for …, … and … railroad tracks.
| Упр.VI. Соотнесите термины с их определениями:
|| Diesel-electric Locomotive
|| Steam Locomotive
| a) a locomotive which uses the force of hot gases to run turbines operating electric generators.
b) a gas turbine electric train.
c) a device that links cars together.
d) an engine at the head of the train used to pull or push cars.
e) a device installed at various points along the track to find hotboxes of locomotives.
f) a locomotive which uses a diesel engine to produce energy transmitted to the driving mechanism by means of high pressure fluids.
g) a locomotive which gets electric power from wires suspended above the track or from the third rail.
h) an engine that moves cars from track to track in rail yards.
i) a railroad car with a built-in power unit.
j) a locomotive which uses an oil-burning diesel engine to turn an electric generator that produces electric power.
k) an engine that pulls passenger or freight trains along the railroad line.
l) a locomotive which burns coal or fuel oil to produce steam.
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