What's the Difference Between Margarine and Butter?

At the Personnel Department

Candidate: How do you do?

Manager: How do you do? What can I do for you?

Candidate: I'm looking for a job.

Manager: May I ask you a few questions?

Candidate: Sure.

Manager: What's your name?

Candidate: My name is ....

Manager: How old are you?

Candidate: I'm 21.I was born in 1982.

Manager: What are you?

Candidate: I'm a cook.

Manager: Are you married?

Candidate: I'm single.

Manager: What city are you from?

Candidate: I'm from Moscow.

Manager: What languages do you speak?

Candidate: I can speak Russian and English a little.

Manager: What are your previous jobs?

Candidate: I worked at the Silver Palace restaurant as a cook.

Manager: Why did you quit? And why do you want to join our Vegetarian restaurant?

Candidate: I left my job because I'd like to raise money.

Manager: How much would you like to get?

Candidate: I'd like to get not less than 100 dollars a week.

Manager: How much does it take you to get to us?

Candidate: Forty minutes only.

Manager: All right and now fill in resume in block capitals, please, here it is.

Candidate: Thank you.

Manager: We'll let you know by phone whether you are employed or passed by.

Candidate: OK. Goodbye.

Manager: Goodbye.


hot dog lemon mushrooms aborigine carrot coffee cray fish sandwich

chicken nuts egg



some, fat, ingredients, taste, contains, low, heart, butter, blended, milk, contain


What's the Difference Between Margarine and Butter?

Margarine is a solid emulsion of water in a single oil, or (1) oils, usually of vegetable origin, it also may (2) a percentage of milk. It has a (3) content of not less than 80 and not more than 90 per cent. Butter is made from (4) and contains about the same amount of fat. Spreads contain less fat and more water — some are specifically marketed as (5)-fat, while others are made from specific

_ (6), such as Olivio made from olive oil, or Utterly Butterly made from "pure buttermilk.

The main advantage of (7) is that it is essentially natural. The main disadvantage is that it (8) a high proportion of saturated fat that can cause (9) disease.

Many butters also have (10) salt. But if you like the (11) of butter, there is no need to feel guilty.



Savouring the Flavour

French children learn how to use their sense of taste in school. Pa of their curriculum involves the identifying and describing the tastes об saltiness, bitterness, sweetness and sourness, followed by exercises i which food textures are explored. Finally, children learn how to describ blends of flavours and textures in specific foods.

Refined Taste

The French believe that, like a fine painting or a piece of classical music, the artistry of a cook and the quality of a meal may be appreciated fully only when the eater's sense of taste has been educated.

How Do We Taste a Food?

As human being, we have about 10,000 taste buds in our mouths, located in papillae , which are grouped according to receptivity to salty, sour, sweet and bitter. Inside each bud are some fifty taste cells relaying information to neurons, which report to the brain. We primarily taste sweet things at the tip of the tongue, sour substances at the sides, salty all over the surface (but mainly toward the front), and bitter at the back. But every taste is the result of a combination of the four primary tastes.

We can only taste a food when it begins to dissolve ; it is through saliva that the taste buds are stimulated.

People's taste in food differs and changes over time. Taste buds themselves only last about a week; the body replaces them. As we get.

older, however, they are not replaced as quickly, so it takes more llilense flavour to create the same sensation in the mouth.


People's Peculiarities1

A man who stuttered was asked why he did so. "It's my p-p-peculiarity," he answered. "Everybody has some p-p- pcculiarity."

"I don't have any," said the questioner.

"Don't you stir your coffee with your right hand?"

"Yes, of course."

"That's your p-p-peculiarity. Most p-p-people use a s-s-spoon."



It is a small curved plate to put a cup on.

It is a part of a cooker. It is like a metal box with a door.

It is flesh taken from an animal that has been killed for eating.

It is a room that is used for cooking and washing up.

It is a brown sweet or drink made from cocoa. >

It is a liquid food. It is made by boiling meat or vegetables.

It is an oven with gas or electric rings on top.



Eating for Good Health

More and more people today are choosing to take greater responsi­bility for their own health. We now recognize that we can influence our health by making an improvement in lifestyle — a better diet, more exercise and reduced stress. Your health and general wellbeing is very much determined by what you eat and how even a minor change in your diet can help to strengthen your resistance to many illnesses.

It seems almost absurd to state that you need food to live. The body has a built-in alarm signal — hunger — to tell you when your supply of food, the "fuel for the body", is low. That's why you are never in serious danger of forgetting to eat. This alarm signal is also choosy and at times asks for specific supplies, for example, sweet things when your body sugar is low or water when you are thirsty.

What many people fail to recognize is that their bodies have more lhan just one signal. Tiredness, aches and pains, stress, even chronic disease — all these can be indications of a diet that is lacking nutrition.

But we can't see the results of a bad diet immediately (often the effects take years to develop), few people realize just how closely bodily health is linked to what they eat and how often they eat.

You are what you eat, and the food you eat effects the way you feel and the way you look all through your life.

Scientists now know that food and its affects are as complex as our own bodies. Of the thousands of chemicals, minerals and vitamins found in a single food, many are potential life-savers or hazards to health, depending on how much is consumed over time. The link between food and health is an every day but complex issue. So, you should learn how to balance your food intake. Small but well-informed changes to your diet will make a great difference to your wellbeing.

By matching your diet to your lifestyle and developing better eating habits both at home and when you eat out, you can keep yourself in the best of health. And also, you have to understand the proper balanc­ing of the social pleasures and of the body. The foods you eat possess powerful capabilities to help and to harm.



responsibility ответственность
to recognize узнавать, признавать
to influence влиять
improvement улучшение
to reduce уменьшать, сокращать
wellbeing самочувствие
to determine определять
to strengthen усиливать(ся)
to state утверждать
supply запас
fuel топливо, горючее
tiredness усталость
to lack испытывать недостаток
nutrition питание, пища
to link связывать
to affect воздействовать
potential возможный
hazard риск, опасность
issue результат, процесс
intake потребление
to match согласовывать, приводить в со­ответствии
to possess обладать
capabilities возможности
to harm наносить вред


1.Answer the following questions.

1. How can we influence our health?

2. Do you agree that our health and general wellbeing are determined by what we eat?

3. Why are we never in serious danger of forgetting to eat?

4. What alarm signals do our bodies have to indicate that our diet is lacking nutrition?

5. Can we see the results of a bad diet immediately?

6. How does the food we eat affect our life?

7. Why should everyone learn how to balance our food intake?

8. How can we keep ourselves in the best of health?

9. What capabilities does the food we eat possess?

10. And what about your eating habits? Do you always eat healthy food? Do you often overeat? How many times a day do you usually eat? Can you balance your food intake?


2. Give the Russian equivalents to the following:

reduced stress, general wellbeing, a minor change, built-in alarm signal, "fuel for the body", choosy, body sugar, people fail to recognize, bodily health, eating habits, social pleasures.


2.Give the English equivalents to the following:

• брать на себя большую ответственность, влиять на наше здоро­вье, улучшение образа жизни, в большой степени определяется, увеличить сопротивление многим болезням, сигнал тревоги, ис­пытывать недостаток в питательных веществах, плохое питание, состояние организма, тесно связанный, регулировать прием пищи, приспосабливать свой режим питания к образу жизни.


• Vegetarianism

While a meatless diet is growing more and more popular, particularly with the young, researchers discover the health benefits of meat-free eating.

What is a vegetarian? By definition, vegetarianism prohibits the consumption of meat or fish, but some diets are more restrictive than other.

• • Demi- or semi-vegetarians eat fish and sometimes chicken, but not red meat. Ovo-lacto-vegetarians include milk and eggs in their diet but not meat or fish. j

• Lacto-vegetarians have milk and yogurt, as well as cheese mad with vegetarian rennet, but no meat, fish or eggs.

• Vegans do not eat any animal products at all, banning meat, fish, milk and eggs from their diets.

• Fruitarians exclude pulses and cereals from the diet as well as all foods of animal origin. Fruitarians eat only fruit, honey, nuts and nut oils

• Macrobiotic followers have a diet consisting of ten different levels which become progressively more restrictive. At first, animal foods are? excluded, then fruit and vegetables as well. At the final "purist" level only brown rice is eaten.

The Health Benefits

• On the whole, vegetarians follow current healthy eating guidelines. Because they don't eat meat, a prime source of saturated fat, vegetarians take in less total fat, as well as more fibre, in the form of fresh fruits, vegetables and wholegrain cereals. These foods are also good sources of beta carotene, vitamin С and vitamin E, which are antioxidant nutrients and may protect the body from disease.

• A research team at Oxford University has collected information on the health and mortality of more than 6,000 vegetarians and a control group of more than 5,000 meat-eating individuals. The study revealed significant differences between the two groups. For example, in contrast to meat-eaters, vegetarians have a 39 percent lower risk of dying from cancer. The study's research team also found that the risk of heart disease was 24 per cent lower in vegetarians and 57 per cent lower in vegans than in regular meat-eaters.

• 1. Give the Russian equivalents to the following:

• a meatless diet, health benefits, meat-free eating, by definition, consumption of meat or fish, ovo-lacto-vegetarians, lacto-vegetarians, exclude pulses and cereals, healthy eating guidelines, wholegrain cereals, good sources of beta carotene, antioxidant nutrients, the risk of heart disease, regular meat-eaters.

• 2. Answer the following questions:

1. 1. What is a vegetarian?

2. 2. What can semi-vegetarians eat?

3. 3. What do ovo-lacto-vegetarians include in their diet?

4. 4. What do lacto-vegetarians exclude from their diet?

5. 5. What can vegans eat?

6. 6. What do fruitarians eat?

7. 7. What is the macrobiotic diet?

8. 8. What foods are rich of beta carotene, vitamin С and vitamin E?

9. 9. What has the research team from Oxford University revealed?

10. 10. Are you a vegetarian or a meat-eater?

11. 11. Are there vegetarians in your family?


• 3. Give the English equivalents to the following:

• 1. Диета, исключающая мясо, становится все более популяр­ной, особенно среди молодежи. 2. Ученые-исследователи обнару­живают преимущества диеты, исключающей мясо. 3. Вегетариан­ство исключает употребление мяса в пищу. 4. Полувегетарианцы иногда едят курицу. 5. Приверженцы строгой вегетарианской дие­ты вообще не едят продукты животного происхождения. 6. При­верженцы макробиотики придерживаются диеты, состоящей из десяти уровней. 7. На последнем, «чистом» уровне они едят только коричневый рис. 8. В целом вегетарианцы придерживаются правил здорового питания. 9. Они употребляют в пищу меньше жира и больше клетчатки. 10. Вегетарианцы подвержены на 39 % меньше­му риску умереть от рака.

• How Much Sugar Do We Eat?

• Sugar is found in many different products such as soup, cereals, salad dressing, ketchup, peanut butter and baby foods. You will not always see the word "sugar" when you read food labels. You might see the names sucrose, maltose, fructose or corn syrup instead. All of these add up to the same ingredient — sugar!

• Sugar gives you quick energy. However, this energy lasts only a short time. Soon you begin to feel tired and sluggish. The next time you want sugar, take a piece of fruit instead. You'll get the energy you need without any letdown afterwards.

1.1. Answer the questions:

1. 1. In what products can sugar be found?

2. 2. What are the other forms of sugar?

3. 3. Does quick energy last a long time?

4. 4. What can replace sugar?

5. 5. Why is it better to take fruit instead of sugar?

6. 2. Complete the sentences:

1.1. The energy you get from sugar lasts ...

2.a) a long time; b) a short time; c) all day.

3.2. Another word for sugar is ...

4.a) generic; b) sucrose; c) cereal.

5.3. A healthful substitute for sugar is ...

6.a) corn syrup; b) cake; c) fruit.

How to Stay Healthy

Текст С

Anyone who wants to have an active life must stay healthy and strong. It is never too late to start being healthy.

There are a few things you should do to stay healthy:

• Follow a healthy balanced diet.

• Limit the amount of sugar, salt and fat you eat.

• Get sufficient exercise to keep a strong body that works well.

• Get enough rest so that the body may continue doing its work well.

• Plan regular visits to your doctor and dentist.

There are certain things that are not good for your health:

• a poor diet,

• no exercises,

• little rest,

■ no visits to your doctor and dentist,

• smoking,

• using drugs improperly,

• drinking alcohol.

1. Read the text and answer the question: What do they do good or not good for their health ?

2. Bill jogs or swims every day for at least half an hour.

3. Ann is usually rushed at lunch, so she just eats a candy bar and drinks a soft drink.

4. Simon works at night. He often gets only five hours of sleep a day.

5. Mike doesn't.like to cook. He often drinks beer when he is hungry.

How to Lose Weight

Jane: Where are you going?

Lucy. I'm going to the Weight Losers club now.

Jane: What are you doing there?

Lucy: I'm trying to lose weight.

Jane: But you are not fat!

Lucy: I have already lost two kilos and I'm very pleased with myself.

Jane: How did you do it?

Lucy : I try to eat the right food.

Jane: What does it mean?

Lucy: I stopped eating cakes, pies and ice cream.

Jane: What are you allowed to eat?

Lucy : A lot of vegetables and fruit, a little boiled meat or fish, no fried potatoes, no chocolate and very little salt.


Caffeine Is Harmful for the Heart

Olga: My mother-in-law drinks such strong tea.

Nina: Why shouldn't she?

Olga: Because she has heart problems. Caffeine is not recommended for people with heart problems.

Nina: Does tea contain much caffeine?

Olga: Yes, it does. A cup of strong tea contains more than 100 mg of caffeine.

Nina: I think that it is healthier for everybody to drink juices.

In a Restauraut

Alex: What will you have?

Joan: I'm on a diet.

Alex: Come on! I'll pay.

Joan: What did you say?

Alex: Don't be shy, I'll pay.

Joan: Thanks! Great. Then I'll have dry wine, a steak, fried potatoes, grapes, ice cream and a cake.

Alex: Okay. Waiter!







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