The educational system in Kazakhstan is conducted in two languages - Kazakh and Russian and consists of several levels of state and private educational establishments: infant schools, elementary (or primary) schools, comprehensive schools, colleges and academies. The constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan fixes the right of citizens of the republic on free-of-charge secondary education which is obligatory. The constitution prohibits any discrimination on the basis of language or ethnicity and guarantees equal rights in education regardless of nationality. Children start school at the age of 7 and finish at 17. As a rule a child attends the school, located in the neighborhood. However, in big cities there are so-called special schools, offering more in depth studies of the major European languages (English, French, and German) or the advanced courses in physics and mathematics and children, attending one of this may have to commute from home. The first stage of education in Kazakhstan is elementary (or primary) school for grades one through four. The second is secondary school for middle grades from five through nine. Upon graduation from secondary school students are given the choice of either continuing to attend the same school (high school -senior grades 10-11) or entering a vocational or technical school. Both of these schools are meant to provide one, along with the certificate of secondary education with a number of useful skills
Topic16. Great Britain. London.
London, Capital of Great Britain London is the capital of Great Britain, its political, economic, and commercial centre. It is one of the largest cities in the world and the largest city in Europe. Its population is about 8 million. London is divided into several parts: the City, Westminster, the West End, and the East End. The heart of London is the City, its financial and business centre. Numerous banks, offices, and firms are situated there, including the Bank of England, the Stock Exchange, and the Old Bailey. Few people live here, but over a million people come to the City to work. There are some famous ancient buildings within the city. the Conqueror. It was used as a fortress, a royal palace, and a prison. Now it is a museum. Westminster is the governmental part of London. Nearly all English kings and queens have been crowned in Westminster Abbey. Many outstanding statesmen, scientists, writers, poets, and painters are buried here: Newton, Darwin, Chaucer, Dickens, Tennyson, Kipling, etc. Across the road from Westminster Abbey is Westminster Palace, the seat of the British Parliament. The Clock Tower of the Houses of Parliament is famous for its big bell, known as "Big Ben". Buckingham Palace is the official residence of the Queen. The West End is the richest and most beautiful part of London. It is the symbol of wealth and luxury. The best hotels, shops, restaurants, clubs, and theatres are situated there. The Trafalgar Square is the geographical centre of London. It was named in memory of Admiral Nelson's victory in the battle of Trafalgar in 1805. The tall Nelson's Column stands in the middle of the square. On the north side of the Trafalgar Square is the National Portrait Gallery.
Topic17. My favorite season. Мое любимое время года
Here are four seasons in a year: spring, summer, autumn and winter. Every season is beautiful in its own way.
Summer is followed by Spring. The weather is usually fine in summer, but it can be very hot, especially in July. Sometimes there are storms with thunder and lightning. In summer people try to get away from the city noise and spend more time in the open air. They pick mushrooms and berries in the forest, swim in the rivers and lakes, go fishing and boating. Most people prefer to have their holidays in summer.
.As to me I always book forward to summer. I am never tired of its long sunny days warm rains with thunderstorms and hail the buzz of mosquitoes and midges. I like to spend my summer holidays at the seaside.
Topic18. The USA
The United States of America is the fourth largest country in the world (after Russia, Canada, and China). It occupies the southern part of North America and stretches from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean. It also includes Alaska in the north and Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean. The total area of the country is about nine and a half million square kilometres. The USA borders on Canada in the north and on Mexico in the south. It also has a sea boarder with Russia. The USA is made up of 50 states and the District of Columbia where the capital of the country, Washington, is situated. The population of the country is about 250 million. If we look at the map of the USA, we can see lowlands and mountains. The highest mountains are the Rocky Mountains, the Cordillera, and the Sierra Nevada. The highest peak is Mount McKinley, which is located in Alaska. America's largest rivers are the Mississippi, the Missouri, the Rio Grande, and the Columbia. The Great Lakes on the border with Canada are the largest and deepest in the USA. The climate of the country varies greatly. The coldest regions are in the north. The climate of Alaska is arctic. The climate of the central part of the country is continental. The south has subtropical climate. Hot winds blowing from the Gulf of Mexico often bring typhoons. The climate along the Pacific coast is much warmer than that of the Atlantic coast. The USA is a highly developed industrial country. It is the leading producer of copper and oil and the worlds second producer of iron ore and coal. On the industrial enterprises of the country they
Topic19. My University.The West Kazakhstan agrarian and technical university of Zhangir of the khan — a versatile higher educational institution of the West Kazakhstan region. In structure of higher education institution of 6 faculties, 25 chairs with 36 specialties, postgraduate study, a magistracy and others. The faculty of university nearly 500 people, including 1 academician NAN RK total, 5 academicians and corresponding members of AEH PK, 26 doctors and more than 140 candidates of science.Faculties of university:Polytechnical faculty; Faculty "Mechanical engineering"; Faculty "Economy and business"; Faculty of "Agronomics"; Faculty "Veterinary medicine and biotechnology"; Faculty of the correspondence and distance learning; All-university chairs.The West Kazakhstan agrarian and technical university of Zhangir of the khan Topic20. My hobby.
My hobby is reading. Some people think that as more and more people have televisions in their homes, fewer and fewer people will buy books and newspapers. Why read an article in the newspaper, when the TV news can bring you the information in a few minutes and with pictures? Why read a novel, when a play on television can tell you1 the same story with colour, picture, and action? Why read the biographies of famous people, when an hour-long television programme can tell you all that you want to know? Television has not killed reading, however. Today newspapers and magazines are sold in very large numbers. And books of every kind are sold more than ever before. Books are still, a cheap Books at home are a wonderful source of knowledge and pleasure, and some types of books should be in every home. Every home should have dictionaries. Every home should have an atlas of the world, with large maps. A good encyclopaedia is useful, too, because there you can find information on any subject way to get information and entertainment. Then you can relax with a good story, or from time to time you can take a book of poems off your shelf and read the thoughts and feelings of your favourite poets.