Текст 2. AREAS OF ECONOMICS




Контрольная работа № 4 для студентов II курса.

Задания 1 – 5 перевод и работа с текстом.

Задания 6, 7 – грамматические задания.

Для выполнения грамматических заданий необходимо изучить следующие темы:

· Модальные глаголы и их заменители (эквиваленты)

 

Задание 1.Прочитайте и письменно переведите текст 1 «What is Economics?».

Текст 1. WHAT IS ECONOMICS?

It is difficult to give a full and accurate definition of economics, but it is possible to indicate what problems economists are interested in. They are factors that affect prices of goods and services and also resources necessary to produce them. Economists are also interested in sellers' and buyers' behaviour in the market, in the relationship between "price system" and "market mechanism".

Now economics is more complex. There are three main approaches to economics: microeconomics, macroeconomics, and development economics. There are also several specialized areas of study. Among them are money economics, international economics, labour economics, industrial economics, agricultural economics, growth economics, mathematical economics, etc.

Like many other sciences, economics uses models to understand economic problems. A model often helps an economist to make correct predictions. The economist usually follows several rules when he makes a model of economic behaviour.

First, real life is complex and it is not possible for an economist to include alt the details in a model. So, a model is an abstraction from real life. A model usually includes only essential elements and relationships of a particular economic situation. Second, if an economist has two different models of one phenomenon, he always chooses the model that predicts the results of a particular phenomenon more accurately. Third, although models are helpful in economic analysis, an economist always studies the actual economic situation before he makes decisions. It is not enough to make models, it is also necessary to collect and study actual data in order to know how accurate a model is.

 

ACTIVE VOCABULARY

 

1. economics экономическая наука, эко­номика

economist n экономист , economic adj экономический

2. difficult трудный

3. possible возможный

4. to be interested (in smth) интересоваться (чём-л.)

5. to affect smth v влиять, воздействовать (на что-л.)

6. price n цена

7. necessary adj необходимый, нужный

8. to sell v (sold, sold [sauld]) продавать seller ['sela] n продавец

9. to buyv (bought, bought) покупать, закупать

buyer n покупатель

10. behaviour n поведение

11. market n рынок

market mechanism рыночный механизм market of services рынок услуг

12. relationship n отношение, взаимоотноше­ние

13. to developv разрабатывать, развивать, со­вершенствовать

developmentn разработка, развитие, со­вершенствование

14. area n область, район, территория

15. labour n труд, рабочая сила

16. like подобно, как

17. prediction n предсказание, прогноз

to predict v предсказывать, прогнозировать

18. to follow smth v следовать (за кем-л./ чём-л.)

19. so поэтому, так что, следовательно

20. essential adj обязательный, необходимый, существенный

21. particular adj конкретный, частный, от­дельный

22. to choose v (chose, chosen) вы­бирать

23. actual adj фактический

24. to make a decisionпринимать решение

25. enough adv достаточно

26. data n pl данные

datum данная величина

 

Задание 2. Ответьте письменно на вопросы к тексту.

1. What problems are economists interested in?

2. What are three main approaches to economics?

3. What specialized areas of economics do you know?

4. Why do economists use economic models?

5. Why is it not possible to include all the details in a model?

6. What does a model usually include?

7. Which of the models docs an economist always choose?

8. Why is it necessary for an economist to collect and study actual data?

 

Задание 3. Переведите следующие словосочетания:

market analysis, labour economics, labour market study, goods and services prices, growth economics problems, actual economic situation details, consumer behaviour, future prediction, growth mechanism, agriculture and manufacturing,

relationship, mineral resources prices, agricultural product price growth, area development, trade growth prediction.

 

Задание 4.Прочитайте и письменно переведите текст 2 «Areas of Economics».

 

Текст 2. AREAS OF ECONOMICS

There are three main approaches to economics: micro­economics, macroeconomics, and development economics.

Microeconomics focuses on individual economic units. The economic behaviour of either individual consumers or firms or industries is studied by microeconomics. The distribution of products and income among all these units is also analyzed by microeconomics. In this field of economics individuals are considered both as suppliers of labour and as consumers of goods. Firms are also studied both as suppliers of products and as consumers of labour and capital.

There was a long period in the 19th and early in the 20th centuries when microeconomic questions dominated in economics. In the 20th century economists' interest in forces that affect income, employment and prices grew. They considered economy in all its relationships.

The term "macroeconomics" was first used in the 1930s. The world depression that began in 1929 required the study of such macroeconomic questions as achievement of full employment and economic growth by means of proper government policies. This area of economics was developed by the British economist John Maynard Keynes.

The third main field of economics, that is, development economics, studies the factors of economic growth and how these factors are used by governments in order to achieve high living standards.

 

ACTIVE VOCABULARY

1. unit n единица; блок

2. either ... or ... или ... или; либо... либо...

3. distribution n распределение

to distributev распределять, распростра­нять

4. income n доход(ы), прибыль, поступления

5. to considerv рассматривать, полагать, счи­тать

6. both ... and ... conj и...и; как...так и

7. suppliern поставщик

to supply (smb with smth.) v поставлять (кому-л. что-л.)

8. forcen сила

9. employment n работа (по найму); заня­тость (рабочей силы)

to employ v предоставлять работу, нанимать

an unemployment n безработица

10. to require v(smth) нуждаться (в чём-л.); тре­бовать (чего-л.)

11. achievement n достижение

to achieve v достигать, успешно выполнять

12. proper adj правильный, надлежащий

13. government n правительство

14. living standard жизненный уровень

Пояснения к тексту

1. early in - в начале

2. существительное policy «политика» в английском языке может употребляться во множественном числе для обозначения политического курса, политики, проводимой конкретным правительством, партией и т.п. На русский язык обычно переводится единственным числом.

 

Задание 5. Ответьте письменно на вопросы к тексту.

1. What does microeconomics study?

2. Whose economic behaviour is studied by micro­economics?

3. How are individuals considered by microeconomics?

4. When did microeconomic approach dominate in economics?

5. When did economists' interest in macroeconomics grow?

6. How is economy considered in macroeconomics?

7. What stimulated the development of macroeco­nomics?

8. What problems were analyzed in the 1930s?

9. What is studied by development economics?

 





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