Основная цель "Грамматического практикума" — сформировать у обучающихся навыки понимания и перевода оригинальных англоязычных текстов по специальности с опорой на знание грамматических структур, характерных для научной медицинской литературы на английском языке.
Практикум адресован, прежде всего, студентам медицинских вузов, изучающим базовый двухгодичный курс английского языка. Пособие может рассматриваться как вторая часть издания "Курс английского языка. Учебник для медиков" (М. "Высшая школа", 1992). Однако, содержание практикума и структура специальных заданий-инструкций к упражнениям позволяют использовать его в качестве самостоятельного учебного пособия.
"Грамматический практикум" также рекомендуется для использования при обучении аспирантов и соискателей в курсе подготовки к сдаче экзамена кандидатского минимума по английскому языку. Пособие может заинтересовать широкий круг специалистов-медиков, желающих свободно владеть навыками работы с англоязычной научной литературой.
Практикум состоит из четырёх частей: "Личные формы глагола", "Неличные формы глагола", "Синтаксис" и "Особенности перевода некоторых слов и конструкций". Помещённый в конце пособия "Индекс" предназначен для быстрого поиска упражнений, необходимых для отработки конкретного грамматического явления.
Каждая часть содержит несколько тематически организованных разделов, в состав которых включены группы упражнений и тексты для тренировочного и контрольного перевода. Предусмотрены также обзорные упражнения по грамматическим темам. Весь англоязычный материал носит аутентичный характер,
Упражнения снабжены заданием-инструкцией, включающим:
- краткие сведения о грамматическом явлении, характеристику его формаль
ных признаков в сочетании с графическими иллюстрациями для обучения рас
познаванию данного грамматического явления в предложении;
- задание на поиск данного явления в английском предложении в качестве
подготовки к переводу;
- рекомендации по переводу на русский язык с примерами;
- задание на перевод.
Как работать с "Грамматическим практикумом".
Первые три части практикума — "Личные формы глагола", "Неличные формы глагола", "Синтаксис" — посвящены основным грамматическим и лексическим явлениям, характерным для английского научного стиля, знание которых позволяет точно понимать и правильно передавать на русский язык содержание медицинского текста. В процессе работы над пособием студенты смогут расширить запас знаний в области медицинской терминологии и общенаучной лексики.
В четвёртую часть "Особенности перевода некоторых слов и конструкций" включены упражнения для отработки навыков понимания и передачи на русский язык грамматических и лексических явлений, часто встречающихся в анг-
лийском медицинском научном тексте и, как правило, представляющих трудности при переводе.
Упражнения в каждом разделе расположены по принципу "от простого к сложному"; по аналогичному принципу расположены предложения в каждом упражнении. Упражнения повышенной трудности обозначены значком * и предназначены для студентов продвинутых групп.
Целью заданий-инструкций является научить студентов распознавать ядро английского предложения (подлежащее и сказуемое) и структуру в целом, точно понимать и правильно переводить медицинский текст. Работа над переводом предложений разбита на этапы, которые отражены в заданиях "А", "Б" или "А", "Б", "В".
Задание "А" содержит краткие сведения о том или ином грамматическом явлении и графические иллюстрации и ориентирует студентов на поиск, прежде всего, ядра предложения (подлежащего и сказуемого), а также на поиск грамматического явления, которому посвящено данное упражнение. При выполнении этого задания рекомендуется пользоваться словарём для подготовки предварительного ("чернового") варианта перевода.
Задание "Б" содержит рекомендации по способам перевода данного явления, включает наиболее часто используемые эквиваленты на русском языке и предлагает примеры, на которые следует ориентироваться при выполнении окончательного перевода, предусмотренного заданием "В".
Тексты для тренировочного перевода предназначены для самостоятельной работы с последующим обсуждением и комментариями в аудитории. Контрольный перевод выполняется в качестве итоговой работы по теме и показывает степень усвоения пройденного материала.
Практикум заканчивается разделом "Знаете ли вы?", который содержит занимательные задания, ориентированные на активное использование подъязыка медицины и знаний различных медицинских дисциплин. Все упражнения этого раздела и некоторые упражнения других разделов (задания которых предполагают знание медицинских дисциплин - например, составление дефиниций) снабжены ключами.
NV — ядро предложения (подлежащее и сказуемое);
nv — ядро предложения (подлежащее и сказуемое) в придаточном предложении; Ns - подлежащее (существительное) во множественном числе;
V — основная форма глагола;
Vs - глагол-сказуемое в 3 лице единственном числе настоящего времени;
V — глагол-сказуемое в прошедшем времени;
V3 — 3-ья форма глагола (причастие II);
Ving — 4-ая форма глагола (причастие I).
Практикум апробирован в Московской Медицинской академии им. И. М.Сеченова на занятиях со студентами 1-го и 2-го курсов, а также в группах аспирантов и соискателей при подготовке к сдаче экзамена кандидатского минимума по английскому языку.
ЧАСТЬ 1 Личные формы глагола
(Finite Forms of the Verbs)
РАЗДЕЛ 1 Действительный залог (Active Voice)
Используя фрагменты предложений из трёх частей таблицы, составьте определения медицинских терминов (дефиници и), при этом форма глагола to be должна соответствовать числу, в котором стоит подлежащее.
The ancle is the joint where the foot joins the leg. The lungs are the two organs inside the chest.
|1. The ankle 2. Bones 3. The cell 4. The elbow 5. The eye 6. The feet 7. The head 8. The heart 9. The knee||is / are a) the part of the body which has eyes, mouth and brain in it. b) the organ in the chest that pumps the blood around the body, c) a large organ in the body which cleans the blood, d) a chemophysical system for producing heat and mechanical work, e) the hard parts inside the body which together form the skeleton, f) the space behind the lips where the teeth and tongue are. g) the soft movable part inside the mouth that is used for tasting, licking and speaking, h) the bony part of the head which encloses the brain.|
|10. The liver||i) the hard, white objects in the mouth that are|
|used for biting and chewing.|
|11. The lungs||j) the part of the body between the hand and arm|
|which bends when the hand is moved.|
|12. The mouth 13. A muscle||k) the part in the middle of the arm where it bends. 1) the joint where the foot joins the leg. m) the two organs inside the chest which are used|
|14. The skeleton 15. The skull||for breathing, n) the place where the leg bends, o) the parts of the body that are at the ends of the|
|16. The teeth 17. The tongue 18. The wrist||legs, p) the structural and functional unit of a living organism, q) an optical instrument much like a camera, r) a strong, flexible framework that supports the body.|
Переведите предложения, содержащие конструкцию there be [there is/there are), которая на русский язык обычно передаётся глаголами имеется, существует.
1. There are many treatments for asthma sufferers.
2. There is a lot of sickness in the winter months.
3. There are many different types and many causes of nephritis.
4. There is a considerable amount of elastic tissue in the arterial wall, especially in
5. In a stressful situation there is an increase in the secretion of the hormones,
noradrenalin and adrenalin.
6. Under the epithelial lining there are various amounts of lymphoid tissue.
7. There are more veins than arteries in the body, but they are less muscular than
8. When the ventricles contract there is a gradual increase in the pressure in these
9. When the infection spreads into the kidney substance there is suppuration and
destruction of nephrons.
10. Normally there is a delay of about 10 seconds between the oxygenation of the
blood in the lungs and recognition of this by cells in the brain.
11. There are several types of leucocytes which carry out their protective functions in
12. There are 11 pairs of intercostal muscles that occupy the spaces between the 12
pairs of ribs.
13. There are a number of uncommon conditions that result from defects in the
14. There is always a small quantity of gastric juice present in the stomach, even
when it contains no food.
15. There is strong evidence that heredity plays an important role in the genesis of
16. There is direct evidence that secretions from the endocrine glands, such as thyroxin
and insulin, exercise a very active influence on metabolism.
17. There are normally about 8,000 white corpuscles in every cubic millimeter of
blood. There are two main varieties: polymorphs and lymphocytes. There are
three different kinds of polymorphs: eosinophils, basophils and neutrophils. There
are two types of lymphocytes that sometimes function independently but usually
А. Найдите ядро (подлежащее и сказуемое) в простых предложениях, опираясь на данные формулы:
N -> Vs
The liver regulates the concentration of glucose in the blood.
The kidneys regulate theamount of water in the blood. Б. Переведите предложения.
1. The skull articulates with upper part of the vertebral column.
2. The five lumbar vertebrae lie in the lowest part of back.
3. Blood reflects changes in the activities of organs of the body.
4. The glomeruli filter from the blood the non-protein portion of plasma.
5. The bronchi branch in the lungs into smaller and smaller bronchioles.
6. The features of the disease vary among individuals.
7. Each of the temporal bones houses the inner ear.
8. The right hemisphere of the brain processes visual information.
9. Our senses provide accurate information about the position of our body parts.
10. The body automatically maintains its water balance through the kidneys.
11. Most smooth muscles act automatically under control of the nervous system.
12. Disturbances of the acid-base balance result in acidosis or alkalosis.
13. During growth, the shape and size of bones change through a continuous process
14. The pulmonary function of the lungs during pneumonia changes in different
stages of the disease.
15. Separation of blood from its usual environment immediately initiates biochemical
16. The pulmonary valve guards the orifice between the right ventricle and the
17. Measurements of calcium and phosphorus aid in evaluating the activity of the
18. The amplitude of muscle contraction equals the amount of actual shortening.
19. A serous membrane lines the pericardium, the sac around the heart.
20. Disturbances in the function of the pancreas produce digestive disorders.
21. The action of sunlight on the skin changes certain substances in the body into
22. Total deprivation of the supply of oxygen to the body causes death within minutes.
23. The hepatic and cystic ducts by their union form the bile duct.
24. At each heartbeat the two atria expel their contents into the ventricles.
А. Проанализируйте предложения и определите, какое существительное заменяется союзом - which или that, и почему глагол-сказуемое, стоящий после союза, имеет или не имеет окончание -s.
Б. Переведите предложения.
1. The body has two main mechanisms that control fluid volume.
2. The heart is primarily a pump that pushes the blood through the blood vessels.
3. The trachea divides into right and left main bronchi which go to the lungs.
4. The cranium forms the bony cage that encloses the brain.
5. Mucous membrane lines all body passages that open to the exterior, such as
digestive and urinary tracts.
6. The heart possesses a fibrous skeleton that surrounds and strengthens many of
7. Normal blood plasma has several safeguards that help to maintain the fluidity of
8. Muscles are machines that convert chemical energy into mechanical energy.
9. The white matter of the spinal cord consists of bundles of fibers that carry
10. Pancreas secretes digestive enzymes and hormones which regulate glucose levels
in the blood.
11. Pancreatic juice contains enzymes which complete the breakdown of food.
12. The mucus component of saliva is a sticky substance that lubricates the food.
13. The bronchi branch out within the lungs into many smaller tubes, the bronchioles,
which culminate in clusters of tiny air sacs, the alveoli.
14. Salivary glands produce saliva, a liquid that protects the delicate membranes and
mixes with food in the first step of digestion of food.
15. Healthy joints contain a fluid which protects the bones within them.
А. Определите, какую функцию в предложении выполняют выделенные слова и какой частью речи они являются.
Выпишите эти слова и поставьте обозначения: n - для существительного v - для глагола.
Найдите в словаре значения этих слов, ориентируясь на их принадлежность к той или иной части речи.
Б. Переведите предложения.
1. a) The skeleton is all the bones that make upa body.
b) Water can have in its chemical make-upsome substances harmful to a man.
2. a) Many enzymes have different formsin different organs,
b) Cartilage formsthe major part of bone in the very young.
3. a) The body changescarbohydrates into fats and stores them in that form,
b) These lymphocytes undergo certain changesin the thymus.
4. a) Leucocytosis meansan increase in the normal number of leucocytes in the
b) The blood is the chief meansof transport within the body.
5. a) An enzyme does not controlthe direction of the reaction.
b) Smooth muscles in blood vessels provide controlover the distribution of blood and help regulate blood pressure.
6. a) Growth in height occurs as a resultof maturation of the skeleton,
b) Hormonal deficiencies usually result in metabolic disturbances.
7. a) The announcement of the germ theory initiated the study of bacteria as causes
of some diseases.
b) At the beginning of systole contraction of the cardiac muscle causesa steep rise in pressure inside the chamber.
8. a) The cranium is the housewhere the brain resides.
b) The 29 vertebrae housein their central hollows the spinal cord.
9. a) Blood vessels coursethrough every layer of bone and carry nutritive elements,
oxygen, and other products.
b) The onset, course,and duration of a fever vary with the cause.
10. a) Adults laugh an average of only 15 timesper day, while children laugh an
average 400 timesdaily.
b) The biological clock in human beings timesour periods of sleep and wakefulness and many body activities.
11. a) The heart functionsas an effective pump.
b) The blood is a fluid tissue with many different functions.
12. a) A hormone travels through the bloodstream and exerts influenceon cells,
tissues, and organs.
b) Many factors influencethe activity with which drugs operate.
А. Пользуясь таблицей на стр.14, иллюстрирующей образование времён английского глагола в действительном залоге, найдите сказуемое в каждом предложении и дайте его полную характеристику:
1) лицо, число
Пример: has contributed - 3 лицо, ед. число
- настоящее время (Present)
- группа Perfect
Б. Переведите предложения.
|Образование времён английского глагола||Время|
|в действительном залоге||Present||Past||Future|
|Indefinite||V Vs||V2||shall, IV will|
|Tenses (Группы||Continuous||am is } Ving are||was }Ving were||shall, will}beVmg|
|времён)||Perfect||have.V3 has||had V3||Sh^}have v3 will|
|Perfect Continuous||have . }beenVinq has||had been Ving||shall }have been Vinq will|
1. The X-ray has contributed greatly to our knowledge of the physiology of the
2. In the future people will live longer than today.
3. Several recent studies showed a connection between stress and illness.
4. Cellular responses center around the activities of T-lymphocytes.
5. Lymph is constantly moving around the body but the lymphatic system has no
central pump equivalent to the heart.
6. The internal ear houses the organs essential for hearing and equilibrium.
7. More and more men have been entering the nursing profession.
8. Lack of sufficient insulin results in diabetes.
9. Antibiotic drugs have greatly improved the treatment of abscesses.
10. People vary in their reaction to different antigens.
11. Doctors have been operating on fetuses since the early 1980s.
12. The use of X-rays equipment in hospitals began in the late 1890s.
13. Human activities are now causing damage to the ozone layer.
14. From the dawn of humanity, people have been using plants to cure their illnesses.
15. The gums cushion the teeth, while the jawbone firmly anchors the roots.
16. The size of the thoracic cavity is constantly varying with the movement of ribs
and the diaphragm.
Тексты для тренировочного перевода (к разделу 1)
1. Muscle is the most abundant tissue in the body: it accounts for some two fifths of
the body weight. Even at rest a muscle is not completely flabby. Continuous
activity of the nerve cells maintains a slight tension or tone, which causes no
movement. Several hereditary diseases affect the growth and function of muscles.
2. The two principal layers of the skin are the dermis with a rich network of blood
vessels and nerves, and the epidermis, a protective outer layer without blood
vessels. The skin is more than a waterproof jacket for the body. It is an active and
versatile organ of sensation and of adaptation to the environment.
3. Connective tissues create the internal framework of the body. The connective
tissue system supports and connects internal organs, forms bones and the walls
of blood vessels, attaches muscles to bones, and replaces tissues of other types
after injury. Fasciae are connective tissue layers that support and surround organs.
A layer of fascia is an effective barrier against the spread of infection through the
4. The spleen is a fibrous sponge full of blood and lymphoid tissue. The ribs and
diaphragm generally protect the spleen from injury. It is an important element of
the reticulo-endothelial system, a community of cells that engulf and destroy
foreign matter, such as bacteria. When micro-organisms and their poisons are
circulating in the blood, the spleen generally enlarges.
5. Man has two kidneys, one at each side of the backbone between the thick muscles
of the back and the abdomen. The kidney has several functions. It excretes waste
material and water. It also helps to regulate the acidity of the body fluids. The
discovery of albumin in the urine usually indicates a faulty working of the kid
6. Proteins are essential ingredients of all living matter. They make up about 12 per
cent of the weight of the human body. A molecule of protein is a chain of several
hundred amino-acid molecules. The biological properties of a protein depend on
the exact sequence of different amino-acids in the chain (primary structure), their
orientation (secondary structure) and the shape of the chain as a whole (tertiary
structure). Small differences make for totally different proteins.
7. Water accounts for about 60 per cent of a man's body weight and 50 per cent of
a woman's. The difference is due to the average woman's larger proportion of fat,
which contains no water. The plasma of the blood contains rather more than 3
litres, and the tissue fluid about 12 litres. Together, these 15 litres make up the
extracellular fluid. Although the balance between blood, tissue fluid and cells
remain almost constant there is a rapid and continuous exchange of water between
Тексты для контрольного перевода (к разделу 1)
1. The liver is a solid organ of dark-brown colour and the largest gland in the
human body. It occupies the right-hand upper position of the abdominal cavity.
About four-fifths of the organ lies to the right of the middle line of the body. The
liver rests upon various abdominal organs, the right kidney and suprarenal gland,
the large intestine, the duodenum, and the stomach. Liver tissue consists of
thousands of tiny lobules.
The liver has many functions vital to the body. Of the liver's many digestive functions the production of bile and storage of glucose are particularly important. The bile not only performs important functions in the process of digestion, but also serves as a vehicle for the excretion of waste products from the body. The liver has a double blood supply. The portal vein brings venous blood from the stomach, the intestines, and the spleen. The hepatic artery brings arterial blood. These two bring about 40 ounces (1,200 milliliters) of blood to the liver every minute.
2. The two lungs are a pair of elastic organs of respiration. They supply the body
with oxygen and eliminate carbon dioxide from the blood. The lungs extend from
the collarbone to the diaphragm in the thoracic cavity. They normally lie free
within the pleural cavities of the thorax except for the attachment by their roots
to the trachea and the heart by the bronchi and pulmonary blood vessels
respectively. The two lungs are not quite mirror images of each other. The right
lung, which is the slightly larger of the two, has three lobes (upper, middle and
lower) and the left lung has only two lobes (upper and lower). Air enters each
lung through a large tube, or bronchus, which divides and subdivides into a
network of countless tubules, bronchioles. These tiny tubules lead to alveoli. The :
wall of an alveolus is a single layer of a cell. Alveoli are the sites of gas exchange
in the lungs. They form the respiratory surfaces and allow oxygen and carbon
dioxide to move in and out of the lungs. The spongy mass of the lungs contain
some 600,000,000 alveoli. We inspire more than 25,000 times a day and during
this time inhale around 16 kg of air.
3. In 1928 a British microbiologist, Frederick Griffith, was trying to develop a vac
cine against pneumonia. He was working with two different strains of the causative
bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae. One strain was pathogenic, the other was
nonpathogenic. When Griffith injected dead cells of the pathogenic strain of S.
pneumoniae into a mouse, the mouse survived, because the dead bacteria were
unable to establish an infection in the mouse. However, when he injected a
mouse with living cells of the nonpathogenic strain together with dead bacteria
(neither of them could cause disease alone) the mouse died. Griffith reasoned
that genetic material from the dead bacteria had somehow entered the living
nonpathogens and transformed them into the pathogenic bacteria, Griffith had,
in fact, observed the movement of hereditary material from one cell to another.
The chemical that transmitted the hereditary information, which included ,
instructions on how to cause infection, leaked from the dead pathogens and
entered the living bacteria and caused the transformation of a nonpathogen to a
pathogen. Other scientists then began to investigate the specific substance. They were looking for the molecular basis of heredity. However, it remained a puzzle until 1944.
4. Scientific pathology really began in 1761 with the publication of Morgagni's collection of case histories in which doctors related patients' symptoms to disorders of particular organs. Under the influence of scientists, such as Hunter, pathology came to rely more and more on facts and less on philosophical speculations. The flood of pathological discovery in the 19th century came largely from microscopical examination. Pathology has come to deal with smaller and smaller units from a vague concept of the whole person to the study of particular organs, then tissues, then cells, and finally, molecules. Pathologists are now beginning to study disturbances of chemical reactions which determine the processes of disease. In the past, postmortem studies were the only possible way of learning about the nature of disease, and they are still very important for both research and teaching. But they reveal disease at a state where it is beyond the help of medicine. Thus pathologists described in great deal what had gone wrong with a patients's anatomy, but it had little to say about his physiology.
РАЗДЕЛ 2 Страдательный залог (Passive Voice)
А. Пользуясь таблицей, иллюстрирующей образование страдательного залога времён английского глагола, найдите сказуемое в каждом предложении и дайте его полную характеристику:
1) лицо, число
Пример: is assisted
- 3 лицо, ед. число
- настоящее время (Present)
- группа Indefinite
- страдательный залог (Passive)
Б. Переведите предложения.
|Образование времён английского глагола||Время|
|в страдательном залоге||Present||Past||Future|
|Tenses (Группы времён)||Indefinite||am is are||}v3||was were||}v3||shall will||}beV3|
|Continuous||am is are||} being V3||was were||}being V3||—|
|Perfect||have has||}been V3||had||been V3||shall will||} have been V3|
1. The surgeon is assisted by a large staff.
2. A date for the operation has been set.
3. The results of the operation will not be known for some weeks.
4. They have been warned of the possible complications.
5. The drug is being monitored for possible side-effects.
6. The first heart sound is followed after a short pause by the second.
7. Local inflammation is followed by various reactions in other parts of the body.
8. Quinine was formerly used to treat the fever symptoms of malaria, but it is not
often used now because of its side-effects.
9. Normal fibrous tissue is replaced by adipose tissue when more food is eaten than
10. The cells on the surface of the skin are constantly being replaced by new cells.
11. Patients are sometimes given placebo tablets and begin to feel better because
they believe that they had been given real drugs.
12. Over 70 works have been ascribed to Hippocrates [hi'pokrs'ti:z] (around 400
B.C.) and he is traditionally regarded as "the father of medicine".
13. Celsus ['selsas] (1st century A.D.) is particularly remembered for his account of
the signs of inflammation.
14. Herophilus [hi:'ro:fal9s] (335 — 280 B.C.), the founder of anatomy was followed
and his observations were extended by his pupil Erasistratus [.ere'sistratas] (310 —
250 B.C.), who was the founder of physiology.
А. Соедините две части предложений, согласуя их по смыслу и грамматически, то есть сказуемое (в правой колонке) должно соответствовать подлежащему (в левой колонке) в лице и числе.
1. The 206 bony elements
2. Bone formation
3. The inner core of bones
4. The cranial bones of
a newborn child
5. The spinal column
6. The ends of long bones
7. The bones of the face
a) is dependent upon a proper supply of
calcium and phosphorus to the bone tissue.
b) are arranged round the openings for eyes,
nose and mouth.
c) is made up of bony vertebrae.
d) are not completely joined.
e) are covered by a thin layer of cartilage.
f) is composed of hematopoietic tissue.
g) are held in place by tough fibrous bands — ligaments.
А. Перепишите текст так, чтобы выделенные курсивом слова, которые выполняют функцию дополнения, стали в предложениях подлежащими, а сказуемое - в соответствующей форме страдательного залога.
Б. Переведите написанный вами текст с учётом того, что пассивная конструкция английского глагола может передаваться на русский язык их активными эквивалентами.
Например: Пища измельчается зубами. Зубы измельчают пищу.
The teeth crush the food and the saliva moistens it. The muscular walls of the stomach break it down still further, while the gastric lining secretes juices to continue the process. The liver and pancreas secrete juices into the upper section of the smaller intestine, and these convert the food so that the body can assimilate it. In the intestine, tiny projections cover the walls, and these absorb the nourishment from the food. Here the body absorbs most of the liquid from the undigested food, and excretes the remainder as waste.
А. Определите время и залог сказуемого в каждом предложении.
Б. Переведите предложения.
1. The skeleton makes up about 18 per cent of the weight of the human body and
is made up of a little more than 200 individual bones.
2. Living organisms are affected by and affect the non-living world strongly.
3. Blood has been investigated intensively from the early days of biochemistry.
4. The lymph is continually being drained away from all over the body by a large
number of small lymph vessels.
5. The outlook for patients with hypertension has improved markedly in recent
years with the development of antihypertensive drugs.
6. Some organs are rapidly affected if the patient lacks oxygen for even a short
7. An upper respiratory infection of the nose and throat is usually followed by
middle ear infections.
8. Several metabolic problems that affect many systems influence the growth and
the development of the skeletal system.
9. The organic and mineral components of the bone matrix are continually being
recycled and renewed through the process of remodeling.
10. The last 50 years have witnessed remarkable achievements in cardiovascular
medicine and surgery.
11. Shock occurs when the metabolic needs of cells are not being met because of
inadeguate blood flow.
12. This view is now being challenged.
13. Epidemiologists are now looking for evidence that the virus is being passed from
person to person.
14. Before this century, experiments with transfusion often failed, with disastrous re
suits, owing to the fact that blood groups had not yet been discovered.
15. The chemistry of the brain is little understood but the evidence at least shows
that many mental disturbances are associated with and perhaps due to interference
with certain chemicals.
16. Acid rain is being blamed for rapid decay of old limestone buildings.
17. In the most severe forms of acute gastritis there is ulceration of the mucosa,
perforation of the stomach wall and peritonitis. Where there has been extensive
tissue damage, healing is by fibrosis, which reduces elasticity and peristalsis.
18. No good explanation of the mechanism of this phenomenon has ever been
В соответствии с содержанием предложений употребите глаголы, стоящие в скобках, в действительном или страдательном залоге.
1. Most vitamins ... (require) only in extremely small amounts, and each vitamin ...
(be) present in many different foods.
2. Synthetic and natural vitamins usually ... (have) the same biological value.
3. Some vitamins ... (occur) in inactive forms that... (not influence) chemical reactions.
4. Hopkins and Funk ... (develop) the vitamin theory of deficiency diseases.
5. As each new vitamin ... (discover) it ... (give) a letter.
6. Vitamin A ... (keep) the skin healthy and ... (help) produce mucous secretions
that ... (build) resistance to infection.
7. In vitamin A deficiency the epithelial tissues of many organs ... (affect).
8. Vitamin В deficiency ... (accompany) by poor growth, dermatitis, anemia, kidney
and adrenal lesions.
9. Several coenzymes of vitamin B12 ... (exist).
10. There ... (be) several forms of vitamin D.
11. Little ... (know) of the metabolic role of vitamin D.
12. In vitamin D deficiency there ... (be) a failure of deposition of calcium salts in the
cartilaginous matrix of the bones.
13. The body ... (require) only small amounts of vitamin D Which ... (provide) by a
balanced diet and normal exposure to sunlight.
14. Intestinal bacteria ... (manufacture) vitamin К in the body, and so deficiencies of
this vitamin rarely ... (result from) a poor diet.
Тексты для тренировочного перевода (к разделу 2)
1. The relation of microbes to disease was fully established by Robert Koch (1843 —
1910) Much of his work on bacteria was done while he was a general practitioner
in Prussia. Koch showed that specific human diseases are caused by specific
microorganisms. Most of the bacteria were identified by Koch or one of his many
2. The immune system was not recognized as a separate system until recently
.Although evidence of immune protection was known in ancient times, the first
inkling of how immunity is caused came in 1884, when macrophages were first
observed. Since then, many different components of the system have been found.
3. Digestion comprises all the processes by which nutrients are liberated from food,
broken down into their chemical components by the action of enzymes and
absorbed by the body. In the foregut the food is taken in by means of the lips, teeth and tongue, chewed, lubricated with saliva and swallowed in single bits.
4. From the stomach, the chyme passes into the small intestine through the pyloric
sphincter. Much material is still undigested. Proteins have not been completely
broken down, starches are still being converted into simple sugars, and fats
remain in large globules. In the small intestine the process of digestion is completed
by the action of the bile, which is secreted by the liver and released by the gall
bladder, and by the action of various enzymes.
5. The body is continuously exposed to damage by viruses, bacteria, toxins and
chemicals, and foreign proteins of plant origin. These insults are received by the
skin, the respiratory system, and the digestive system. The skin suffers far more
injuries than the rest of the body. This organ is looked upon as an important
means that protects the tissues against mechanical, chemical and bacterial injuries,
Where protection against mechanical injury is particularly called for, the skin
develops thickness, as on the sole of the foot, and on the palms of the hand.
6. Most of the leukocytes, but not all, are manufactured in bone marrow along with
erythrocytes. They are formed in large quantities. The number of leukocytes in
the blood will rise or fall in response to certain abnormal conditions. A rise is
called leukocytosis and a fall is leukopenia. Before the discovery of antibiotics,
severe leukopenia was usually fatal.
7. Senile erythrocytes are phagocytosed and broken down in the reticular connective
tissue of the bone marrow and the spleen. Iron from the hemoglobin is temporarily
stored in the phagocytes of the reticular connective tissue as hemosiderin, which
in turn is broken down to ferritin, a molecular combination of six atoms of iron,
Ferritin is carried through the blood stream to the bone marrow. Here it is taken*
up by the reticular cells which eventually release it to the erythroblasts.
8. The thymus gland was given its name by Galen in the second century AD because
of its resemblance to a bunch of thyme flowers. The thymus gland is now established
as a vital part of the immunological system. Until 1960 the function of the thymus
was completely unknown. Certain relationship have been found between the
thymus and the transmissibility of leukemia in experimental animals. A great
deal has been written about the relationship of thymus enlargement to sudden
death in infants, particularly during anesthesia.
9. Thromboplastin is widely distributed in the body and is held securely in the
tissues and the platelets of the blood. It is the "trigger" mechanism which initiates
the clotting process. When there is a wound thromboplastin is liberated from the
tissues and the clotting process begins promptly. Excessive bleeding due to a
deficiency of thromboplastin is observed in patients with hemophilia.
10. Surgery of the brain has been performed since prehistoric times. Examinations of the skulls which had been operated upon give ample evidence that some who underwent such operations survived them for considerable periods of time. In fact such early operations were apparently carried out in all parts of the world, yet much evidence of them has been found in the North and Central America.
Тексты для контрольного перевода (к разделу 2)
1. Medicine and pharmacology are two sciences which have changed a great deal
in recent times. Long ago, medicine was a guessing game. Medical care was
given by doctors, pharmacists, and even barbers! All of them experimented freely
on their patients, who often died as a result. Early pharmacists depended on
plant remedies which had been developed over the centuries. One popular remedy
during the Middle Ages was poppy juice, which contains opium (a narcotic).
Other remedies were animal fat and even crocodile blood, which was considered
a "cure" for poor eyesight. Other common practices were dangerous and sometimes
fatal. For instance, drilling a hole in the patient's skull. Perhaps this was done to
treat head wounds or to relieve pressure inside the head. People whose diseases
were "incurable" often looked for help from the spirit world, astrology, and magic.
Astrology, which was valued as a method of diagnosis, was even taught in many
medical schools. Medicine has become a reliable science only in recent times.
Even now, however, it still involves a certain amount of experimentation.
2. Evidence shows that the heartbeat originates in the S-A node and that alterations
in heart rate are governed by this node. Hence it has been named the "pacemaker"
of the heart. In a normal heart, when the contraction wave has spread through the
atria it stimulates the bundle of His which conveys the impulse to the ventricles.
By this means the ventricles are ready to contract just when they have been
filled. Conduction in the bundle of His takes about 1/6 second. There is no other
path for the impulse, because the muscle fibres of the atria and ventricles do not
communicate. Degeneration of the bundle fibres impairs or prevents conduction,
and some or all of the impulses fail to reach the ventricles.
Согласование времён (Sequence of Tenses)
А. Пользуясь таблицей, определите время действия, описанного в придаточном предложении: "до", "одновременно" или "после" действия, описанного в главном предложении.
СОГЛАСОВАНИЕ ВРЕМЁН В АНГЛИЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ
|главное предложение||(сказуемое в Past Indefinite)(Они сказали,что ...)|
|придаточное предложение (глагол-сказуемое выражает действие, соотнесённое с действием, выраженным глаголом -сказуемым главного предложения)||they had workedin the laboratory the week before.||they workedin the laboratory.||they would workin the laboratory the next month.|
|Past Perfect (had + V3) предшествующее действие: они работали в лаборатории на прошлой неделе.||Past Indefinite (V2) одновременное действие: они работают в лаборатории.||Future in the Past (would + V) будущее действие: они будут работать в лаборатории в следующем месяце.|
Б. Переведите предложения.
1. Leonardo da Vinci [h:a'na:do de 'vintji:] (1452— 1519) suggested that blood left
the heart by the arteries and returned by the veins.
2. Erasistratus [.era'sistratas] (3rd century B.C.) taught that nerves were hollow and
acted by transmitting vital spirit.
3. Vesalius [vi'seili:as] (1514— 1564) found anatomy more or less where Galen ['geilsn]
(A.D. 130-200) had left it. He told his students that they would learn anatomy
only by doing their own dissections, not from books or lectures.
4. Haller [Ъа:1э] (1708— 1777) proved that some nerve fibres carried impulses from
the central nervous system which stimulated the muscles, while others carried
sensory impulses to the brain.
5. Jenner ['dзеner] (1749— 1823) took up a popular belief that people who had had
cow-pox were safe from smallpox. He hoped that there would be no more smallpox
all over the world.
6. Schwann [jwa:n] (1810— 1882) made the important discovery that animals were
composed of living cells. He showed that the fundamental unit was not the
tissue, but the cells that composed it.
7. Pasteur [pa:s'ta:] (1822—1895) proved that fermentation depended on living
microbes. He showed that fermentation, putrefaction and infection were all due
to contamination by microbes.
8. Andral faendrel] calculated the proportions in which the major elements of blood
existed in health and in illness, and described circumstances which changed the
quantitative relationship of these elements to each other.
для тренировочного и контрольного перевода
(к разделу 3)
1. In 1876 Ross (1857 — 1932) made up his mind that he would master his medical
course and qualify for an interesting job in India. He learned that millions of
India's people were dying from malaria. In 1897 Ross proved that malaria was
transmitted by mosquito bites. He discovered that when a mosquito bit a person
it did not only suck his blood, but also injected the fluid containing the malaria
parasite. In later years Ross was known as "Malaria Ross", the man who showed
how malaria was carried and how it could be prevented.
2. Banting (1891 — 1941) began to think that possibly the Islets of Langerhans had in
them something which was valuable to the human body. Doctors had long teen
studying diabetes. They knew that the pancreas had some influence on the way
which sugar was used in the human body. But none of them thought that the
islets of Langerhans were the really important part of the pancreas. Banting went
to the University of Toronto. Dr. Maclead told him about the work that had been
done on this problem of pancreas and said that during the summer part of the
laboratory would be unused and Banting would be allowed to have ten dogs for
his work. He would also have a student to help him. In 1922 Banting and Best
РАЗДЕЛ 4 Модальные глаголы (Modal Verbs)
А. Найдите ядро каждого предложения, где составное сказуемое включает модальный глагол и инфинитив в активной или пассивной форме без частицы to.
Б. Переведите предложения.
1. Food must undergo certain changes before it can be of any service to the cell.
2. The cell may be best pictured as a self-sufficient chemical factory.
3. Spleen is soft and cannot be felt on abdominal examination when normal in size,
consistency and position.
4. Organ such as the heart must be transplanted as soon after death of donor as
possible; skin, corneas, bone and some blood fractions, however, can be stored.
5. People with back trouble should not lift heavy weights.
6. The body could not cope with an excess of blood sugar.
7. The eye muscles, or the nerves which supply them, may be affected by disorders
which arise later in life.
8. Any person who is taking corticosteroid drugs or who has previously had a
severe reaction to the same vaccine should not be vaccinated.
9. Healthy bones cannot be built without calcium salts, and the body cannot utilize
these salts in the absence of vitamin D.
10. Blood donors must meet certain requirements of age, health and weight.
11. All physicians find that there can be no end to their education — they must keep
up with new developments.
12. The movement of food in the large intestine can be followed by giving a patient
a meal of some opaque substance, such as barium sulphate and taking a series of
X-ray photographs afterwards.
13. What characteristics must good surgeon have? Surgeons need good eye-hand
coordination, manual dexterity, and the physical stamina.
14. A wide variety of other systems may be damaged by the rheumatoid process.
15. Backache can result from bad posture, a soft bed or muscle strain, but it can also
be caused by rheumatism, typhoid fever and osteoarthritis.
16. The disinfectant must be diluted in four parts of water before it can be used on
17. The ointment should only be used externally.
18. Anaemia, from whatever cause, if of sufficient severity and duration may cause
Тексты для тренировочного перевода (к разделу 4)
1. The bony structures must be regarded as active store-houses of mineral matter.
When the need arises the body can draw upon bones for constituents like lime
and phosphates. Under certain conditions the bones indeed may give up so much
of their mineral matter that they become soft and can no longer function as an
2. Each organ system of the body may be attacked by a number of diseases. These
diseases have certain things in common no matter which organ is affected. Other
symptoms and signs may be particular to the individual organ. The central nervous
system may be attacked by the same diseases as other organs. Because the nervous
system controls the working of the body in so many ways, diseases may affect not
only a part of the system but also another part of the body.
3. By itself, a virus is a lifeless particle that cannot reproduce. But inside a living
cell, a virus becomes an active organism that can multiply hundreds of times.
Most viruses can be seen only with electron microscope. Virologists demonstrated
in the early 1900's that viruses could cause cancer in animals.
4. Pain in the abdomen may be caused by a variety of conditions. Within the abdomen
there are vital organs of the body which can be the source of pain when something
goes wrong. In addition, pain may be "referred" to the abdomen from organs
elsewhere in the body, for example, pneumonia may sometimes cause abdominal
pain, as may a heart attack. In fact, locating the cause of pain in the abdomen
may be a difficult job for the physician.
5. The muscular wall, or septum, which runs down the centre of the heart divides it
into two sides: the right heart and the left heart. There is no connection between
the two sides. Each side must perform different work. Thus, the heart may be
called a dual pump. It must receive the venous blood and send it into the lungs
for fresh oxygen. This is done by the right side of the heart. The left side must
receive blood from the lungs and pump it out into the body.
6. The patient who is taking nitroglycerin should keep the medication at hand at all
times. It should be kept in a tightly closed, dark, glass container, free from heat
and moisture. The drug is not addicting and there is no limit to the number that
may be taken in a 24-hour period; however, no more than three tablets should be
taken at 5 minute intervals during an attack. If no relief is obtained 15 minutes
after the third tablet is taken, the physician should be notified immediately.
Тексты для контрольного перевода (к разделу 4)
1. Heart attack is diagnosed most readily by means of an electrocardiograph. This machine records patterns of electrical activity of the heart and can detect changes in activity that are associated specifically with heart attack.
Once they have been hospitalized, heart-attack victims can be helped in a number of ways. For example, in some cases further damage to the heart can be prevented by dissolving the clot that caused the attack. Injections of substances, such as streptokinase or tissue plasminogen activator are used for this purpose. In many hospitals heart-attack victims are routinely admitted to specialized coronary care units. In these units the electrical rhythm of the heart is monitored continuously, and arrythmias (abnormal rhythms) can be treated promptly.
If the heartbeat rate falls too low, a temporary pacemaker may help. The pacemaker is inserted into a vein and moved to the right ventricle, where its electrical impulses stimulate the heart to beat more quickly. Similarly, catheters for monitoring blood pressure may be inserted into a vein.
2. Another method of artificial respiration which has now found favour is known as "mouth-to-mouth respiration". The principle on which this method is based is that expired air from the resuscitator's lungs is breathed into the patient's lungs. It is important that there should be an air-tight seal between the two mouths and that the patient's nostrils should be closed by the resuscitator's hand. The patient's head should be held back and care should be taken to ensure that the patient's tongue does not obstruct the air-way. The resuscitator must also guard against the use of excessive force because this might propel sea water or vomit back into the patient's lungs. He should bear in mind that although he himself will have to breathe more deeply than is his custom he must not overdo this. If he does he might easily faint himself.
ЧАСТЬ 2 Неличные формы глагола (Non-Finite Forms of the Verb)