Read and translate the text:

In our country housing construction is being carried out on a large scale. Hundreds of factories producing prefab panels are being constantly built. The successful fulfilment of housing plans in our country is a practicable realization of the industrialized building methods and the development of a large quantity of prefab ferroconcrete panels and parts. The work of a builder is no longer backbreaking and complicated.

Builders, as we know, assemble a house from prefabricated units which are delivered to the construction site. A welder then welds the units to hold them in place. A great variety of materials' are nowadays used by builders. Students of building institutes study the existing materials. When they become full-fledged builders they develop new building materials and building methods.

A qualified building worker must now be able to read a technical drawing, he must know the scale and the specifications. If you want to contribute to the beauty of a town or city, if you want to leave a memory of yourself is the history of that town or city, come to a construction site and learn the trade of a builder. And be sure to enter a Civil Engineering Institute.

The building profession attracts many numbers of young men and women nowadays. It is an honourable profession.

Builders construct and reconstruct residential and industrial buildings, bridges, schools, palaces of culture, museums, theatres, kindergartens and hospitals. They build tunnels, canals, power stations, dams and reservoirs. They also construct aqueducts to store and transport water for populated areas and to irrigate desert lands. The distribution of water in irrigated areas is based on annual plans. Very many irrigation systems have been built and are being built and modernized. Hundreds of dams, reservoirs, locks, pumping stations have been erected on the rivers of our country by our hydrotechnicians.

The person entering this honourable profession must have a scientific attitude, imagination, initiative and good judgement, obtained by

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in Cincinnati, Ohio. The 16-storey structure demonstrated for the first time first time the safety and economy of reinforced concrete frames for high-rise construction, and was a vital stimulus for using reinforced concrete in fireproof construction.

Concrete was chosen as the structural material chiefly for economics; it offered the equivalent of steel frames in load bearing capacity and other physical properties yet was somewhat lower in cost. Engineers all over the world watched with great interest as construction proceeded smoothly along its 16-storey route. Today this building is recognized by engineers as having revolutionized the building industry.



Find the key sentences in all the passages of the text. Render the text in Russian: Reinforced concrete is a combination of two of the strongest structural materials, concrete and steel.

This term is applied to a construction in which steel bars or heavy steel mesh are properly embeded in concrete. The steel is put in position and concrete is poured around and over it, then tamped in place so that the steel is completely embedded. When the concrete hardens and sets, the resulting material gains great strength. This new structural concrete came into practical application at the turn of the 19th century. The first results of the tests of the reinforced concrete beams were published in 1887. Since that time the development of reinforced concrete work has made great progress. "And the reasons of this progress are quite evident. Concrete has poor elastic and tensional properties, but it is rigid, strong in compression, durable under and above ground and in the presence or absence of air and water, it increases its strength with age, it is fireproof.

Steel has great tensional compressive and elastic properties, but it is not durable being exposed to moisture, it loses its strength with age, or being subjected to high temperature. So, what is the effect of the addition of steel reinforcement to concrete?

Steel does not undergo shrinkage or drying but concrete does and therefore the steel acts as a restraining medium in a reinforced concrete member. Shrinkage causes tensile stresses in the concrete which are balanced by compressive stresses in the steel. For getting the best from

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чрезвычайно остра. Даже обычный гравий приходится везти сюда за

сотни километров.

Ячеистый бетон представляет собой разновидность легкого бетона с равномерно распределенными по всей массе материала замкнутыми воздушными порами (85%).

Пористая структура ячеистых бетонов достигается применением пено- или газообразователей.

По способу образования пористой структуры ячеистые бетоны подразделяются на пенобетоны и газобетоны.

Газобетон почти в два раза легче железобетона, из него удобно монтировать дома. Технология изготовления различных деталей проста и хорошо освоена. Уже действует первый завод по выпуску газобетона.

III. Give titles to the separate paragraphs given below:

1. The manufacture and use of ready mixed concrete requires skill and good organization. Some care and organization is also required of the user of ready mixed concrete. He must know what concrete he requires and when he needs it. He must also have available enough men and equipment to handle and place it when it arrives on the site.

2. To a large extent the strength is dependent upon the type of clay used and method of making, but with most types of brick there is also a considerable variation according to the temperature at which the bricks are burnt.

Where considerable loads have to be carried a strong brick is needed, but it should be remembered that the strength of a wall is derived from a combination of brick and mortar. Building regulations define the type of mortar to be used with bricks of varying strength to carry varying loads. Nowadays the majority of bricks are used in non-bearing walls.


IV. Make up some sentences using the following words and word combinations:

concrete durability, deep water, offshore, concrete structures, prestessed concrete, reinforced concrete, underwater structures.

V. Read the text and then render it in English:

The first reinforced concrete skyscraper in the world was built in 1902-03

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experience and serious work.

Civil engineers and architects have a common aim - to provide people with all modern conveniences, such as running water, gas, electricity, central heating. While a sanitary engineer protects the quality of water by treating and purifying this water when it is used for domestic purposes, an architect is a person who designs buildings. An architect must receive a great deal of scientific training connected with his profession. He must know mathematics, as well as many facts concerning materials - for example what loads different materials may safely carry - so that there will be no danger of his building falling down. Architects must need some knowledge of sculpture, painting, design, mechanical engineering, geography, city planning, etc. The structure an architect creates should give us pleasure, a sense of beauty.



1. honourable - благородный

2. canal - канал (искусственный); channel - пролив, русло, проток: The Belomor Canal, constructed in 1933, joined Leningrad and the White Sea. The English Channel separates the United Kingdom from the mainland on the south.

3. attitude - отношение, позиция: I dont like his attitude towards his work.

4. to treat -обрабатывать: In order to make this water drinkable it has to be treated with special chemicals.

5. to purify - очищать(ся): The water used for reinforced concrete must be purified of organic matter.

6. domestic - домашний, внутренний: Nowadays gas cookers are widely used for domestic purposes.



I. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following sentences:


1 Дома строят из сборных элементов. 2. Работа строителя уже не является изнурительной. 3. В строительстве используется большое

разнообразие строительных материалов. 4. Он освоил работу крановщика. – 7 -

II. Point out the predicate in each sentence of the text.


III. Define the tense of all the verbs in the following sentences and then translate them into Russian:

1. In our country housing construction is being carried out on a large scale. 2. Hundreds of factories producing prefab panels are being constantly built.

3. A great variety of materials are nowadays used by builders.

4. I have been in construction for many years.

5. A qualified building worker must know the scale and the specifications.


IV. In the blanks below insert the proper preposition:

1. The building profession attracts many numbers ... young men and women. 2. Builders construct residential and industrial buildings, palaces … culture, etc. 3. Hundreds ... dams, reservoirs, pumpstations have been erected ... our hydrotechnicians. 4. The tremendous (огромный) scope ...construction ... the Soviet Union is proof... our desire and plans ... peace.


V. Open the brackets and use the proper tense:

1. The building profession (to attract) many numbers of young people

2. It (to be) an honourable profession.

3 The person (to enter) this profession must (to have) a scientific attitude, imagination, initiative and good judgement.

4. A sanitary engineer (to protect), the quality of water by treating and purifying this water when it (to be) Ы used for domestic purposes.

5. An architect (to be) a person who (to design) buildings.


VI. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following words, word combinations and sentences:


привлекать; в настоящее время; почетный; возводить; для гражданских целей;


Профессия строителя - благородная профессия. Они строят и восстанавливают жилые и общественные здания, мосты, школы,

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to prepare a chemically resistant concrete using a binder (вяжущее), a vitreous sodium silicate (стекловидный силикат натрия): When such a vitreous silicate is dissolved in water, liquid (жидкий) glass is obtained. In order to assist in the solidification (затвердение) of the liquid glass and increase its water resistance certain elements are added to the concrete composition. They serve to neutralize the alkali (щелочь) in the liquid glass and convert it into a waterinsoluble (нерастворимый) compound. Thus, during the course of the neutralization of the alkali, free silica is evolved (выделяется кварц) from the liquid glass in the form of a gel (гель) which serves as binder.

Chemically resistant concrete has not found vide application because it is completely permeable to aggressive, corrosive solutions. The Soviet scientist V. P. Kirilishin decided to provide an improved alkalimetal-silicate based concrete. In accordance with his invention highsilica-alkaline glasses are practically insoluble in water even at elevated temperatures and are not suitable for the production of liquid glass. However, when subjected to heat in the presence of finely divided quartz sand, the high silica alkaline glass does show some water solubility and has the ability to crystallize into quartz on the finely divided particles of the quartz sand. In the present invention the silica binding agent is not present in the form of a gel that has the more thermodynamically and chemically stable crystalline form of free silica namely quartz. This leads to good chemical, physical, thermal and mechanical characteristics for the binder and the chemically resistant concrete.



I. Translate into English:

1. Железобетон - это вид бетона, полученного в результате сочетания бетона и стали. 2. Стальные стержни и стальная арматура укладываются в нужном положении и заливаются бетоном. 3. Бетон затвердевает, схватывается и приобретает большую прочность. 4. Сталь не подвергается усадке, она действует как сдерживающая среда в железобетонном элементе.

II. Render the following in English:

Проблема снабжения строительными материалами в пустыне

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cement, sand, gravel and water (в нужных количествах). 3. The characteristics of concrete depend (от качества используемых материалов). 4. (Бетон применялся египтянами, римлянами) in the construction of aqueducts and bridges. 5. (Так как цемент не был известен в то время) concrete was made of clay and later of gypsum and lime.


II. Learn the pronunciation of the following words. Repeat them after the speaker:

reinforced, tensional, tensile, rigid, peculiar, to pour, to gain, to subject, moisture, temperature, feature, medium, shrinkage.


III. Read and translate the following word-combinations:

to put in position, to pour concrete, to lose strength, to come into practical application, to cause tensile strength, to undergo shrinkage, at the turn of the century.






Read and render the text in Russian:

a) Not long ago a new building material was born. Called alkali-slag concrete, most of its components come literally from under foot. Cement is replaced by a mixture of granulated blast-furnace slags and sodium and potassium compounds: The filler can be sand or sandy loams containing various amounts of clay, which usually cannot be used with conventional cement.

The new material has been tested successfully and is now being used for roads, pavements, irrigation systems and other structures. Chemically resistant concrete (кислотоупорный) may be sometimes used in the construction of structures attacked by chemically active media (среда), i.e. industrial, hydraulic and underground structures. It has been proposed

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дворцы культуры, музеи, театры, детские сады и больницы. У строителей и архитекторов - одна общая цель: обеспечить людей всеми современными удобствами - водой, газом, электричеством, центральным отоплением. Инженер-сантехник следит за качеством воды, в то время как архитектор проектирует здания. Архитектору надлежит знать скульптуру, живопись, проектирование, градостроительство, географию и др. Огромный размах строительства в стране является доказательством наших планов на мирное будущее.




Read the text and translate it:


The efforts of an engineer who designs a project, and the constructor, who builds the project, are directed toward the same goal, namely, the creation of something which will serve the purpose for which it is built. Construction is the ultimate objective of a design. The application of engineering fundamentals and analyses to construction activities may reveal methods of improving the quality, while at the same time reducing the costs of construction.

An engineer is engaged to prepare the plans and specifications and usually to supervise the construction of the project. It is the duty of the engineer to design the project which will most nearly satisfy the needs of the occupant at the lowest practical cost.

The engineer should study every major item to determine if it is possible to reduce the cost of the project. It may be possible to change a design, modify the requirements for construction, or revise portions of the specifications in such a manner that the cost of the project will be reduced without sacrificing its essential value. An engineer who practices this philosophy is rendering a real service to his client. Thus, it seems evident that an engineer should be reasonably familiar with construction methods and costs if he is to design a project that is to be constructed at the lowest practical cost.


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Exercise. Answer the following questions:

I. Are the efforts of an engineer and the constructor directed toward

the same goal? 2. Construction is not the ultimate objective of a design, is it? 3. What is an engineer engaged to do? 4. Is it the duty of the engineer to design the project which will most nearly satisfy the needs of the occupant? 5. Why should the engineer study every major item? 6. Should an engineer be reasonably familiar with construction methods and costs?




Translate the text in written form using the dictionary:

The cost of a project is influenced by the requirements of the design and the specifications. Prior to completing the final design the engineer should give careful consideration to the methods and equipment which may be used to construct the project. Requirements which increase the cost without producing commensurate benefits should be eliminated The ultimate decisions of the engineer should be based on a reasonable knowledge of construction methods and costs.

The following are indicative of methods which an engineer may use to reduce the costs of construction:

1. Design concrete structures with as many duplicate members as practical in order to permit the reuse of forms without rebuilding.

2. Simplify the design of the structure where possible.

3. Design for the use of cost-saving equipment and methods.

4. Eliminate unnecessary special construction requirements.

5. Design to reduce the required labor to a minimum.

6. Specify a quality of workmanship that is consistent with the quality of the project.

7. Furnish adequate foundation information where possible.

8. Refrain from requiring the contractor to assume the responsibility for information that should be furnished by the engineer or for adequacy of design.

9. Use local materials when they are satisfactory.

10. Use standardized specifications, with which the contractors are familiar, where possible.

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Dialogue 2

A.: May concrete be considered an artificial conglomerate stone?

В.: Certainly, it may! Why not?

A.: You know how it's made, don't you?

В.: Sure, I do. It's made by uniting cement and water into a paste.

A.: What about sand? Isn't sand used?

В.: Of course, sand is used! How can you make concrete without sand?


Dialogue 3

A.: Concrete has great compressive strength, doesn't it?

В.: Quite true, it has enormous compressive strength!

A.: Does it have great ability to withstand tension?

В.: Tension, you say? It has very little ability to withstand tension.


Dialogue 4

A.: Are lime, gypsum and cement widely used in building construction?

В.: It goes without saying that they are!

A.: For what purpose are they so widely used?

В.: They are used for the purpose of binding together masonry units.

A.: Masonry units? What kind of masonry units?

В.: Don't you know? Masonry units such as stone, bricks and terra cotta.


Dialogue 5

A.: What qualities does a brick building possess?

В.: A brick building is strong and durable.

A.: Do you consider a brick building to be weather resistant too?

В.: Naturally, I do! A brick building is weather resistant too.




I. Fill up the blanks with English equivalents:


I: (Самым важным качеством) of concrete is its property to be formed into large and strong monolithic units. 2. Concrete is made by mixing

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can gas concrete be successfully used? 5. What can you say about cast gas concrete?


II. Which are the nouns derived from the following verbs:

;o change to mix to practice
to damage to crack to set
to work to cast to consider
to affect to pipe to hydrate
  to insulate to prefabricate
to cause to accelerate to divide
to contain to achieve to bind
to require to compress to distribute
to stress to cure to reinforce
to produce to heat to force
to protect to place to weigh
to develop to transport to concrete


III. a) Explain the use of the gerund in the following sentences. b)Translate the sentences.


1. Placing concrete in winter is not very complicated. 2. Even in winter you can achieve a proper strength gain in concrete, if you succeed in keeping the material warm and moist. 3. Before cooling, the concrete must be kept warm for several days.



Study the dialogues and write down the sentences containing interesting information.

Dialogue 1

A.: There's something I want to ask you. May I?

В.: Sure, you may! Why not? Go ahead!

A.: What is the most important component of concrete?

В.: Do you mean to say that you don't know?

A.: Honestly, I don't! Tell me, please!

В.: OK, listen. The most important component of concrete is cement.

- 34 -





Read the text carefully and then render it in Russian:

The majority of building codes divide buildings into classes based upon the manner of their construction, use, or occupancy.

The following division into classes applies to the manner of construction:

1. Frame construction.

2. Nonfireproof constructions:

(a) Ordinary construction;

(b) Slow-burning construction.

3. Fireproof construction.

Frame construction embraces all buildings with exterior walls of wooden framework sheathed with wood shingles or siding veneered with brick, stone, or terra cotta; or covered with stucco or sheet metal. Such buildings naturally have floors and partitions of wood and are considered as comprising the most inflammable type of construction.

Nonfireproof construction includes all buildings with exterior walls of masonry but with wood floor construction and partitions. Slow-burning construction designates heavy timber framing designed as far as possible to be fire resistant, the heavy beams and girders of large dimension proving far less inflammable than the slender joists of ordinary construction.

Fireproof construction includes all buildings constructed of incombustible material throughout, with floors of iron steel, or reinforced concrete beams, filled in between with terra cotta or other masonry arhes or with concrete slabs. Wood may be used only for underand upper floors, window and door frames, sash, doors, and interior finish. In buildings of great height the flooring must be of incombustible material and the sash, doors, frames, and interior finish of metal. Wire glass is used in the windows, and all structural and reinforced steel must be surrounded with fireproof material, such as hollow terra cotta\and gypsum tile to protect the steel from the weakening effect of great heat.

- 11 -


1. manner - способ

2. occupancy - занятость; заселенность

3. frame construction - каркасная конструкция

4. to sheathe - обшивать

5. to veneer - облицовывать

6. stucco - штукатурка

7. sheet - лист(овой)

8. masonry - каменный

9. to designate - обозначать, означать

10. incombustible - несгораемый



I. Answer the following questions:


1. What kind of buildings does frame construction embrace?

2. Does nonfireproof construction include buildings with exterior walls of wooden framework sheathed with wood shingles?

3. Is heavy timber framing connected in any way with slow-burning construction?

4. Can you say what is meant by ordinary construction?

5. Why is fireproof construction so important to man?

6. Must the flooring be of incombustible material in buildings of great height?

7. Where is wire glass used?


II. Translate the following using a dictionary:

Project supervision. The extent and type of supervision required during construction varies considerably with the project. For a small, compact project the supervision may be relatively simple, while a large project, which is spread out over considerable area, such as a dam or a major pipe line, may introduce many supervisory problems.



Read and translate the text and write out the sentences in the passive

- 12 -



Listen to the tape-recorded text and then render it in English:

Lime and silica are ground together to very fine limits. The silicious material can vary considerably in its composition. Much use is made of such waste materials as fly ash from power-stations, blast furnace slag, as well as natural pozzolanas, pumice, etc. The degree of foaming in the gas, concrete, and thus its specific gravity, is determined by the amount of aluminium powder at other agent added. The practical limits of the final density are between 13 and 90 Ib. per cu. Ft. If the gas concrete is. allowed to harden on its own, it usually takes about three weeks before the final strength is achieved. It is more customary to accelerate the setting of the gas concrete by steam hardening it in autoclaves with superheated steam at about 140 1b. per sq. in. The steam hardening process takes about 15-20 hr. Air-cured gas concrete can be used for the manufacture of special components for the refrigeration industry. Such blocks are cast to special dimensions.

Gas concrete can be cast horizontally to form roomgized outer wall units

It is possible to incorporate electric conduit pipes, piping for the cold and hot water systems and also drainage pipes. The units usually include windows and doors, and are reinforced by embedding steel mesh in the mix.

Gas concrete can be used as thermally insulating floor screeds or as an additional thermally insulating layer on top of a concrete roof.

Cast gas concrete is often used as the thermally insulating layer in "sandwich wall" units.

Gas concrete is often used as a thermally insulating layer when casting buildings by a continuous casting technique.



I. Answer the following questions:

1. Which materials are used for the production of gas concrete?

2. How can the setting of gas concrete be accelerated? 3. Can you name the main purposes for which air hardening gas concrete is used? 4.Where

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constructions are made from it. White Portland cement is used in exterior and enterior architectural and decorative finishing ornamental works.


VI. Render the following in English and give it a title:

По запасам древесины наша страна является самой богатой в мире. Особенно велики запасы хвойного леса, которые используются в строительстве. Древесина обладает прочностью, имеет небольшую массу и малый коэффициент теплопроводности. Как строительный материал древесина имеет ряд существенных недостатков: легкая возгораемость, гниение, коробление и пр.

Полимеры - синтетические искусственные и природные смолы. Исходным срьем для получения стекла служат кварцевые пески, сульфат натрия, известняк и др. вещества.

Новым строительным материалом являются ситаллы и шлакоситаллы (силикат-кристал).

Бетон хорошо работает на сжатие и плохо на растяжение. Поэтому бетонные конструкции при набольших растягивающих усилиях разрушаются. Введение в бетон стальной арматуры позволило получить строительный материал - железобетон, в котором выгодно сочетается совместная работа бетона и стали.

Основными показателями механических свойств стали являются прочность, упругость и пластичность.

V. Render the text in English or in Russian:

Concrete. Concrete is an artificial stone. It is made by mixing a paste of cement and water with sand and crushed stone, gravel, or other inert material. After this plastic mixture is placed in forms, a chemical action takes place and the mass hardens. Concrete, although strong in compression, is relatively weak in resisting tensile and shearing stress which develop in structural members. To overcome this lack of resistance, steel bars are placed in the concrete at the proper positions, and 'he result is reinforced concrete. In beams and slabs the principal function of the concrete is to resist compressive stresses, whereas the steel bars resist tensile stresses.



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From the point of view1 of method of construction buildings may be divided into the following groups:

1. Bearing wall construction;

2. Skeleton frame construction.

Bearing wall construction has been the method of structural design employed from the earliest days? By this method the loaded floor and roof beams rest upon the exterior and interior walls, which in turn transmit the loads to the foundation. It is evident that the walls must be of sufficient thickness to carry the loads as well as their own weight; consequently, as the height of buildings increased the required thickness of the walls and the weights brought upon the foundations become excessive and uneconomical.

Skeleton frame construction has been made possible by the development of structural steel and later of reinforced concrete. According to this method the loaded floor and roof beams rest upon girders running between the columns. The columns are placed along the building line and are known as exterior or wall columns; they also occur at required intervals within the body of the building, in which case they are called interior columns. A framework is thereby formed, the walls being carried upon the wall girders at each storey level. The walls are consequently mere enclosures bearing no weight and are of the same thickness on all stories. The columns transmit the loads to the foundations.



bearing - несущий

skeleton - каркас

sufficient - достаточный

excessive – чрезмерный

girder - прогон

framework - ферма



I. Answer the following questions:

1. Into what groups may buildings be divided from the point of view of method of construction? 2. Is bearing wall construction an old method of

- 13 -

structural design? 3. Do the loaded floor and roof beams rest upon the exterior and interior walls by this method?4. Are those loads in turn transmitted to the foundation? 5. Why must the walls be of sufficient thickness? 6. What happened as the height of buildings increased? 7. Are structural steel and reinforced concrete used in skeleton frame construction? 8. Upon what do the loaded floor and roof beams rest according to this method? 9. Can you explain the difference between exterior and interior columns? 10. How do you explain the fact that the walls are of the same thickness on all stories in skeleton frame construction?


II. Translate the following sentences into Russian puying attention to the passive constructions:

1. The design of the wall in modern steel-framed buildings is not seriously affected by structural considerations. 2. It is known that the wind load on a structure is influenced by its shape. 3. When any concrete work is to be carried out, the cheapest coarse aggregate which will give good results is chosen 4. During recent years the value of aluminium as an architectural metal has been increasingly recognized. S. The effect of additional insulation on the inside temperature was calculated. 6. Asphalt tiles are not affected by water.



Look up all the new words you find in the text in the dictionary. Translate the text:

Before calculating the required sizes of beams, girders, or columns to support the weights upon them it is necessary first to determine the weights or loads supported by the structure. These consist of the dead loads and the live loads. By dead load is meant the weight of the construction itself, the walls, floors, ceilings, roof, and permanent partitions. By live load is meant the weight of the furniture, equipment, occupants, stored material, snow on the roof, and movable partitions) The live loads should include all except the dead loads. Wind pressure, really a lateral load, is often classed as a live load but may be considered as producing a separate stress.

-14 -

9. Из асбестоцемента можно приготовить сборные панели для

наружных стен, подоконники, облицовочные листы для внутренней и наружной отделки зданий и т.п.


IX. Give the comparative and superlative degrees of the following:

big, long, late, heavy, strong, dry, short, interesting, beautiful, pleasant, important, little, large, good, bad, well.

X. Retell the following in conversational Russian:

A rapid-hardening cement has been developed at the Zdolbunov Cement and Tile Factory. Its formula includes sand and minerals which contain oxides of alummium, iron calcium and magnesium, the mix being fired in kilns to clinker.

The new cement owes much of its quality to the combination of the constituent minerals and the manufacturing process. The setting time of the new cement is about 40 minutes. In the case of repair of a foundation, for example, the structure is ready inside 40 hours. Furthermore, the new cement makes it possible to fabricate reinforced concrete products of high strength in field conditions.

The new material will effect a considerable saving in materials. At least 200 lb less cement will go to make every cubic yard of stiff concrete. As a result reinforced concrete products will become lighter. The new cement will have many structural applications and will soon be available on a commercial scale.


XI. Insert the needed words and groups of words:

Portland cement is a ... product. It is made of..., .. or ... . They are ... and ... with water to form a paste. The mixture is then ... in a kiln. The clinker is ground to ....


IV. Translate into Russian in written form.

Gas concrete containing fly ash and blast furnace slag is often used as structural material. The method of substituting heavy aggregates by light ones is a rather common practice today. There are several chemical reactions taking place during the air entrainment. Portland cement is widely used in building. Various concrete and reinforced concrete

- 31 -

conductors of (электричества). 8. (Сталь и чугун) are referred to the group of ferrous metals. 9. (Чугун) is the cheapest of the ferrous metals.


VI. Translate into English orally:

1. Медь и алюминий относятся к цветным металлам. 2. Все металлы, кроме ртути, твердые вещества. 3. Сталь широко используется в строительстве. 4. Сталь используется как арматура в железобетонных конструкциях.


VII. Give a written translation of the following:

1. Портландцемент в основном употребляется для изготовления наземных и подземных бетонных * и железобетонных конструкций. 2. Бетон применяется в строительстве с глубокой древности.3. В качестве вяжущих в древности использовали известь, глину, гипс и асфальт.4. Егор Челиев впервые приготовил цемент в начале ХIХв. 5. Изготовление цeментов в Англии и Германии началось на несколько лет поуже.


VIII. Render the following in English:

1. Легкие бетоны изготовляют на пористых естественных или искусственных заполнителях. 2. Легкие бетоны на пористых заполнителях применяют для изготовления панелей для стен, плит перекрытий и конструкций каркаса. 3. Конструкции из легких бетонов следует применять при отсутствии агрессивных воздействий. 4. Когда конструкции находятся в агрессивной среде (наличие агрессивных газов, паров, кислот и т.д.), мелкие трещины растя нугой зоны бетона способствуют активному развитию коррозии арматуры. 5. Это приводит к снижению несущей способности конструкций. 6. Для борьбы с коррозией бетонных и железобетонных конструкций применяют плотные бетоны, полимербетоны. 7. Каменные работы выполняются при воздействии фундаментов, стен, столбов, арок, и других конструкций зданий и сооружений низ естественных и искусственных материалов. 8. Расширение области применения гипса и легких бетонов позволило возводить каменные конструкции из гипсобетонных, пенобетонных и др. легкобетонных камней и плит.

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The various building codes specify the weights per square or cubic foot of wood, stone, steel, concrete, plaster, terra cotta, and other structural materials comprising the dead loads. They likewise regulate the live load per square foot, which depends on the use or occupancy of the building and which must be employed in calculating the weights upon the structural members.



On flat roofs and those of slight pitch the snow load will be at the maximum and the wind pressure at the minimum. As the pitch of the roof increases, the snow load will decrease and the wind load increase. Boston building law includes the following regulations:

Roofs shall be designed to support safely minimum live loads as follows:

Roofs with a pitch of 4 in. or less per foot, a vertical load of 40 psf of horizontal projection.

Roofs with pitch of more than 4 and not more than 8 in.per foot, a vertical load of 15 psf of horizontal projection, and a wind load 10 psf of surface acting at right angles to one slope, these two loads being assumed to act either together or separately.

Roofs with pitch of more than Я and not more than 12 in.per foot, a vertical load of 10 psf of horizontal projection, and wind load of 15 psf of surface acting at right angles to one slope, these two loads being assumed to act either to ether or separately.

Roofs with pitch of more than 12 in. per foot, a vertical load of 5 psf of horizontal projection, and a wind load of. 20 psf of surface acting at right angles i-q one slope; these two loads are assumed to act together or separately.

The expected snow load, naturally varies in different parts of the country, as exhibited b\ the requirements of the local building codes.


Exercises .

I. Answer the following questions:

I. What is meant by dead load and live load? 2. Is wind pressure often classed as a live load? 3. Can you enumerate some of the structural materials comprising the dead loads? 4. Do building codes regulate the live load per square foot? - 15 -

II. In the following sentences explain the meaning of the underlined

words: !. We can easily lift great loads by means of helicopters. 2. Using helicopters means making the job easier on inaccessible construction sites. 3. The use of helicopters is an excellent means of placing in position building units on inaccessible construction sites. 4. By no means сan long-wheel-base lorries be used on a building site where access conditions are difficult. 5. The mean speed of manipulating building cranes can easily be calculated. 6. Large-scale mechanization should be introduced into building practice by all possible means,


III. Underline the suffixes, state what part of speech they indicate and translate the following words into Russian:

pressure, building, regulation, safely, vertical, projection, horizontal, separately, acting, requirement, structure, equipment, partition, structural, employment, specially, different, storage, reinforcement, central, directly, exception, nearly, limitation, construction, economic insulation. , ■ r '■::-■ *■ -



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