MODERN ENGINEERING TRENDS




Шкала текущей аттестации студентов

II курс III семестр, технические факультеты (английский язык)

Модуль Тема Контрольные акции Часы Сроки выполнения Баллы
Fundamentals of Engineering 1. What Is Engineering. Engineering Profession 2. Engineering Materials 3. Nanotechnology 4. Automation and Robotics 1. Письменный перевод текста об инженерном деле1 2. Словарный диктант по теме Engineering Materials 3. Высказывание по теме Nanotechnology 4. Лексико-грамматический тест (инфинитив) 5. Сочинение по теме Robotics   2 неделя 4 неделя 6 неделя 7 неделя 9 неделя
Итого
Training Future Engineers 1. My Faculty 2. My Field of Study 1. Ситуативный диалог об учебе на факультете     11 неделя  
Итого
ESP 1. Latest Developments in My Branch of Engineering 2. Future Trends in My Branch of Engineering 1. Лексико-грамматический тест (герундий) 2. Письменный перевод текста по специальности объемом 1500 п.зн.2 3. Реферирование текста по специальности объемом 5000 печатных знаков.2 4. Презентация новейших достижений в области специализации студента   12 неделя 13 неделя   14 неделя   15 неделя    
Итого
Итого за семестр
Зачет (студент допускается к зачету при минимум 40 баллах за семестр) 1. Лексико-грамматический тест 2. Письменный перевод текста по одной из тем, изученных в течение семестра (1500 п.зн.) 3. Высказывание по одной из тем, изученных в течение семестра 16 неделя 16 неделя   17 неделя  
Итого за зачет (считается сданным при минимум 10 баллах) 20
Итого 100

1. Пример текста для перевода

ENGINEERING: ART OR SCIENCE

Engineers, particularly in the older age, like to think of their work as more of an art than a science. Their motives are not difficult to understand for, until recently, the Arts had a great deal more social status than science and the description of one's work as an art does convey the impression, that it depends more on one's personal talents than on anything to be learnt from others. This has a special attraction for the self-made man. What is more, the dictionary supports this interpretation, for it defines art as human skill and, in this sense, engineering is certainly an art; but so is chemistry or riding a bicycle. Skill, after all, is needed for practically everything. Thus we have a spectrum of human activities, from art, an activity which can produce extremely gratifying results without using any systematic knowledge; to science which is systematic, enabling each scientist to build directly upon the work of others. Science is essentially a social activity while art is based on individual talent. This is not to say that science excludes talent; Newton and Einstein must be granted as much personal genius as any artist. However, the inestimable value of science is that the systematic combination of many individual contributions adds up to a great deal more than their arithmetic sum.

This, then, is a background against which we must decide whether today engineering is an art or a science. It is necessary to admit that a century ago it would have been foolish to call it anything but an art or craft. Though scientific revolution had preceded an industrial one, the early engineers knew little and cared less about formal science.

But by 1860 physics and chemistry, at least, were beginning to catch up with engineering, as biology was catching up with medicine. The German chemical industry was perhaps the first to introduce science-based engineering, with well-known results. Since then advances in many branches of engineering without a sound base in science have become almost unthinkable.

 

MODERN ENGINEERING TRENDS

Scientific methods of engineering are applied in several fields not connected directly to manufacture and construction. Modern engineering is characterized by the broad application of what is known as systems engineering principles. The systems approach is a methodology of decision-making in design, operation, or construction that adopts (1) the formal process included in what is known as the scientific method; (2) an interdisciplinary, or team, approach, using specialists from not only the various engineering disciplines, but from legal, social, aesthetic, and behavioral fields as well; (3) a formal sequence of procedure employing the principles of operations research.

In effect, therefore, transportation engineering in its broadest sense includes not only design of the transportation system and building of its lines and rolling stock, but also determination of the traffic requirements of the route followed. It is also concerned with setting up efficient and safe schedules, and the interaction of the system with the community and the environment. Engineers in industry work not only with machines but also with people, to determine, for example, how machines can be operated most efficiently by the workers. A small change in the location of the controls of a machine or of its position with relation to other machines or equipment, or a change in the muscular movements of the operator, often results in greatly increased production. This type of engineering work is called time-study engineering.

A related field of engineering, human-factors engineering, also known as ergonomics, received wide attention in the late 1970s and the '80s when the safety of nuclear reactors was questioned following serious accidents that were caused by operator errors, design failures, and malfunctioning equipment. Human-factors engineering seeks to establish criteria for the efficient, human-centered design of, among other things, the large, complicated control panels that monitor and govern nuclear reactor operations.

2. Тексты можно взять из учебников и на сайтах

http://www.window.edu.ru

http://www.howstuffworks.com

http://www.greatachievements.org

 

...





Читайте также:
Отчет по производственной практике по экономической безопасности: К основным функциональным целям на предприятии ООО «ХХХХ» относятся...
Обучение и проверка знаний по охране труда на ЖД предприятии: Вредный производственный фактор – воздействие, которого...
Виды функций и их графики: Зависимость одной переменной у от другой х, при которой каждому значению...

Поиск по сайту

©2015-2022 poisk-ru.ru
Все права принадлежать их авторам. Данный сайт не претендует на авторства, а предоставляет бесплатное использование.
Дата создания страницы: 2020-10-05 Нарушение авторских прав и Нарушение персональных данных


Поиск по сайту:


Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!
Обратная связь
0.011 с.