Resources for Foreign Language Teaching.

Resources Functions and usage
Course books (teacher’s book, Pupil’s book, workbook) 1. Framework. Teacher and learners know where they are going and what is coming next, so that there is a sense of structure and progress. 2. Syllabus.In many places the course book serves as a syllabus. 3. Ready-made texts and tasks. 4. Economy.A book is the cheapest way of providing learning material for each learner. 5. Convenience. It is light and small enough to carry. It does not depend on hardware and electricity. 6. Guidance. For teachers who are inexperienced the course book can provide useful guidance and support. 7. Autonomy. The learner can use the course book to learn new material, review and monitor progress with some degree of autonomy. A learner without a course book is more teacher-dependent.  
Computers A computer is an important teaching aid. It helps to hold individual work; it can be attractive and motivating. However, it takes time to train both teachers and students in their use; to set up programs, etc. For teachers computers can be source for preparing materials such as worksheets or tests.
Books   They are still the most convenient teaching aid especially as a resource of texts for reading.
Overhead projectors These are useful for presenting visual or written material to classes: they are more vivid and attention-catching than the black- or whiteboards. They also save lesson time, since you can prepare the displays in advance. However, this means added work in preparation! Like any other electrical equipment, OHP’s are vulnerable to breakdowns: electricity failure.
Videoequipment Video is an excellent source of authentic spoken language material; it is also attractive and motivating. It is flexible: you can start and stop it, run forward back, 'freeze' frames in order to talk about them. And there are many good programmes on the market. A disadvantage is occasional breakdowns ortechnical problems.
  Audio equipment CD-players/cassette players and CDs/cassettes are relatively cheap, and easy to use; and they are the main source (other than the teacher) of spoken language texts in most classrooms. But they are lack of the visual content. Again there may be problems with electric on the other hand, most portable cassette recorders - unlike video and most computers - also work on batteries. When buying cassette recorders, make surethat there is a counter, and then use it to identify the desired entry-point.
Posters, pictures, games, charts, puppets, masks, toys, realia   Materials of this kind are invaluable especially for younger learners. However, if you have time, this type of material can be largely home-made. Realia – real objects (for vocabulary), puppets– models of people or animals that you can move by putting your hand inside them.  
Dictionaries A dictionary is very useful for students and teachers. It is used to give definition/meaning to words in order to clarify and make a person understand the word he/she searches for in the proper context. There are some kinds of dictionaries: bilingual, monolingual, electronic.
Black/ White board It is necessary for teachers to write up planned vocabulary, grammar examples and explanations.
Teacher Hand gestures, facial expressions and mime  


The principals of Foreign Language Teaching

Principle is defined as a guide to action, in our case to teaching. Methodol­ogy of teaching English is based on the fundamental principles of Didactics. They are the following: scientific approach in teaching, accessibility, durability, conscious, activity, visualization and individual approach to instruc­tion, systematic practice. Except for the basic didactic principles Methodology of teaching English uses specific principles that are applied in teaching a foreign language.

Since the aim of teaching English at school is to teach the pupils how to use the target language for communicative needs’, one of the main methodologi­cal principles is the principle of communicative approach. It means that the pupils should be involved in oral and written communication throughout the whole course of learning English.

There are four types of language activities to be developed in pupils: listen­ing, speaking, reading, and writing. Each language activity has its own set of actions that are characteristic of this activity, thus special exercises are needed which should be adequate to each activity. So in teaching a particular language activity the teacher faces specific problems that should be solved since the de­velopment of each activity requires certain techniques and exercises. This is the application of the principle of a differential approach in teaching English, i.e. each language activity requires special attention on the part of the teacher.

The principle of an integrated approach is another methodological princi­ple. Pupils do not assimilate sounds, grammar units, lexical items as discrete components of the language, but they acquire them in sentence-patterns, pattern-dialogues related to certain situations. Pupils should use their skills in the four language activities as interdependent parts of their language experience.

The principle of durability implies the ability of a pupil to keep in his memory linguistic and language material he learns of ready access, i.e. the pupil can use units of the language whenever he needs them for oral or written com­munication. The durability is ensured: – by vivid presentation of material; – by constant revision and drills; – by the use of the material on the part of the learner for communicative needs; – by systematic control; – by constant supervision of pupil’s habits and skills on the part of the teacher.

The principle of conscious approach to language learning means that the language material is acquired consciously; the pupil understands what he learns. Such approach usually contrasts with “mechanical” learning throughout repeti­tive drill. So the pupils should acquire the rules of the language in order to be able to follow them in the act of Communication.

The principle of activity implies that the pupils should be active partici­pants in the learning process. Activity arises under certain conditions. According to the Sets Theory (теорияустановки) the learner should feel the need to learn the language, thus the main sources of activity are motivation, desire and interest in the language.

The principle of visualization is very important in teaching English since the process of knowledge gaining begins with sense perception. The use of visu­alization makes the lessons emotionally coloured, gets the pupils interested and awakens their thought. It creates natural or almost natural situations for the use of the language as a means of communication.

The principle of individualization is getting very important at present. There always are some individuals in the class who learn more slowly than oth­ers, or faster than others. The teacher has to assess the progress of each individ­ual in the class and find the way how to manage the classroom activity so that the slowest learners are not depressed being left behind and the fastest learners are not frustrated by being held back. This principle is achieved: by using the indi­vidual cards; by specific selection of exercises for each group of pupils in the class; by the use of additional material, etc.



Methods of teaching

1) TPR (total physical response – метод полного физического реагирования) - was founded by James Asher. In this method, both language and body movements are synchronized through action responses and use of the imperative (direct commands): “Stand up”, “Go to the door”, "Sit down", etc. TPR is very effective in teaching temporal states, personal pronouns, and other deep grammatical structures.

2) Method of problem teaching (метод проблемного обучения) – teacher sets a problem in front of children, which they should solve;

3) Method of searching (поисковой метод) – children have to search some information;

4) Audio-lingual (аудио-лингвальный) method suggests listening; teacher develops children’s auditory skills ;

5) Audio-visual (аудио-визуальный) method suggests listening relying on pictures/videos;

6) Game method-( игровой метод) includes didactic games – through a game teacher teaches children методдидактическихигр (обучающих игр);

7) Demonstrative (наглядный) method– the main aim of this method that children perceive information visually through pictures, realias, toys;

8) Personally-centered (личностно-ориентированный) method is directed to revealing each child’s identity;

9) Method of projects (проектный метод) children make own mini-projects;

10) Situational method (ситуационный метод) – children are involved in the situation or imagine it;

11) explanatory and illustrative (объяснительно-иллюстративный) – a teacher explains something using illustrations/pictures/posters ;

12) multilevel teaching (разноуровневое обучение) a teacher should consider the level of children’s knowledge and prepare different tasks: for gifted and lagging pupils;

13) method of practical exercises (метод практическихупражнений) – a teacher should use practical exercises for consideration or revision new material;

14) oral presentation method (метод устногообъяснения) a teacher explains material orally ;

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