The content of lesson planning
The content of lesson planning includes the solution of the following tasks:
1. Define the role and place of the lesson in the curriculum
2. Define the connection of the lesson with last and the next ones
3. Choose the type (lessons of studying of a new training material, lessons of improving of knowledge, skills, generation and systematization lessons, the combined lessons, lessons of control and correction of knowledge, skills) and shape of the lesson. A good lesson needs to contain the blend of coherence and variety. A coherence means that learners should see the logical sequence of the lesson (preparation, presentation, practice, evaluation, expansion)
4. Define the peculiarities of the lesson in accordance with the knowledge, level, individual characteristics, interests of learners and class size
5. Set aims of the lesson
6. Choose the methodology of the lesson
7. Choose material such as textbook, worksheets, or DVDs to interest the learners
8. Think about environment, space of the classroom to use in the lesson
9. Define the activities learners will do during the lesson, such as dialogue work, games
10. Define the order (sequence) of the activities, including opening and closing activities
11. Support learners in doing activities
12. Predict problems learners may have in doing activities or with language
13. Count time to spend on different activities
14. Choose the ways to involve every learner to do all the classroom activities
15. Define different forms of work: as a whole class, individually, in pairs or groups
16. Think over homework
The foreign language teacher must have a written lesson planfor eachclass. Lesson planisa document that shows teacher’s thoughts andregulates the activity of a teacher and learnersin the classroom and learners’ work at home.The teacher forms lesson plansin accordancewith the curriculumandcalendar andthematicplanningon the subject. In lesson plans some teachers write down exactly what they are going to do in the lesson and note down each sentence that the learners are going to say. Others use notes to themselves. And there are teachers who keep the whole plan in their heads. However it is not good for other teachers, observers, institution and so on, because they can’t guess what the teacher has in his mind. There are a lot of formats of lesson plans. A format of a lesson plan usually depends on the personal preferences of teachers, institution requirements and exam schemes. In spite of a great number of plan formats they all have general components:
An effective lesson has five parts (stages):
· Preparation (Organization moment)
· Presentation and explanation
· Evaluation and reflection
The lesson plan is necessary for who will do what in each part of the lesson.
The time for preparation, presentation, and evaluation activities should be no more than 8-10 minutes.
Communication practice activities may run a little longer.
1. Preparation.The teacher should:
· Give learners some activities so they know what to expect, motivate and engage every learner.
· Help them to show their knowledge of the day’s topics, using such activities as warmers or ice-breakers.
· Use discussion, checking homework related to the grammar and language
When planning to present a new language item the teacher needs to be sure of the following points:
· How the language item is made - what the grammatical structure of the form is, how it is pronounced and written.
· What the form actually means.
· When the form is actually used.
There is a wide range of interesting activities, techniques and materials for presenting new language. Most course books involve the learners into the language through written texts and dialogues. But there are a few more of the materials that are often used to introduce new language:
• Video tapes
• Audio tapes
• Stories and anecdotes
In this part of the lesson, the focus shifts from the teacher as a presenter to the learners as completers of tasks. The aim of this stage of the lesson is to allow the learners to assimilate the new language successfully so that they understand it, they know how and when to use it. It’s important to have variety in the practice stage and to be sure that activities do not go on for too long. Activities for the practice stage of the lesson may come from a textbook or be designed by the teacher and should have a differentiated character. It’s important also to use different forms of organizing work (pair work, small groups, as a whole class, etc.) During activities on fluency such as role plays, discussions, etc. the teacher monitors the class and activity. If possible, the teacher should move around the room and listen to the learners. It’s better for the teacher not to interrupt learners during the activity. If there are particular errors that are being made, then the teacher can make a note of them and give feedback at the end of the activity.
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