Text “Storage and transport of natural gas”.




Because of its low density, it is not easy to store natural gas or transport by vehicle. Natural gas pipelines are impractical across oceans.

LNG carriers transport liquefied natural gas across oceans, while tank trucks can carry liquefied or compressed natural gas (CNG) over shorter distances. Sea transport using CNG carrier ships that are now under development may be competitive with LNG transport in specific conditions.

Gas is turned into liquid at a liquefaction plant, and is returned to gas form at regasification plant at the terminal. Shipborne regasification equipment is also used. LNG is the preferred form for long distance, high volume transportation of natural gas, whereas pipeline is preferred for transport for distances up to 4,000 km over land and approximately half that distance offshore.

CNG is transported at high pressure, typically above 200 bars. Compressors and decompression equipment are less capital intensive and may be economical in smaller unit sizes than liquefaction/regasification plants. Natural gas trucks and carriers may transport natural gas directly to end-users, or to distribution points such as pipelines.

In the past, the natural gas which was recovered in the course of recovering petroleum could not be profitably sold, and was simply burned at the oil field in a process known as flaring. Flaring is now illegal in many countries. Additionally, companies now recognize that gas may be sold to consumers in the form of LNG or CNG, or through other transportation methods. The gas is now re-injected into the formation for later recovery. The re-injection also assists oil pumping by keeping underground pressures higher.

Natural gas is often stored underground inside depleted gas reservoirs from previous gas wells, salt domes, or in tanks as liquefied natural gas. The gas is injected in a time of low demand and extracted when demand picks up. Storage nearby end users helps to meet volatile demands, but such storage may not always be practicable.

Worldwide, liquefied natural gas production has been largely driven by progressive gains in economics of shipping large LNG volumes by sea from major gas producers to (mostly remote) countries without their own gas production capacity.

In general terms, marine gas shipments to consumers can be summarized as follows. An onshore liquefaction plant is to be built, to deliver LNG to local storage. Then, using cryogenic pumps, LNG should be loaded into tankers. On delivery to a receiving terminal, LNG will be pumped into storage from which, as necessary, the volumes will be regasified and delivered by pipelines to consumers.

With 15 countries accounting for 84% of the worldwide extraction, access to natural gas has become an important issue in international politics, and countries vie for control of pipelines. In the first decade of the 21st century, Gazprom, the state-owned energy company in Russia, engaged in disputes with Ukraine and Belarus over the price of natural gas, which have created worries that gas deliveries to parts of Europe could be cut off for political reasons.

 

Слова к тексту.

low density – низкая плотность

storage – хранилище, хранение

store – накапливать, запасать

carrier – транспортное судно; перевозчик

tank-truck – автоцистерна

competitive – конкурирующий

liquefaction – сжижение

regasification – регазификация

shipborne – перевозимый морем, корабельный

re-injection – обратное нагнетание, закачка добытого газа обратно в пласт

gas flaring – сжигание газа в факелах

depleted – истощенный, исчерпанный

salt dome – соляной купол

demand – потребление, спрос, потребности

pick up – поднимать, подбирать

offshore – морской, в открытом море

onshore – береговая зона, прибрежный, наземный

disturbance – нарушение, повреждение

decompression – падение давления, снижение давления

decommissioning – вывод из эксплуатации, ликвидация

refurbish – восстанавливать, обновлять, ремонтировать

re-developed – вновь развивать, реконструировать

pump – накачивать

prohibitive – запретительный, запрещающий

gains – доход, прибыль, рост, прирост

regasify – повторно испарять сжиженные углеводородные газы

terminal – конечная станция, перевалочная база

volatile – летучий, легкий

Упр. 1. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний:

производство, объем, мощность, морской, потребитель, местное хранилище, криогенный насос, поставлять, транспортное средство, условия, оборудование, высокое давление, сжигание газа в факелах, перекачка нефти, экологический фактор, компрессорная установка, деловые возможности, экономическая выгода, морской транспорт, автоцистерна, газовое хранилище.

Упр. 2. Прочитайте и переведите на русский язык следующие словосочетания:

liquefied natural gas production

progressive gains in economics

high volume transportation of natural gas

process known as flaring gas

gas may be sold to consumers

state-owned energy company

development of offshore gas reserves

new business opportunities for countries

could be cut off for political reasons

own gas production capacity

Упр. 3. Прочитайте следующие предложения. Найдите в каждом из них группу «подлежащие – сказуемое», определите время и залог сказуемого. Составьте все типы вопросов к предложениям.

1. Natural gas pipelines are impractical across oceans.

2. Tanks trucks can carry compressed natural gas over shorter distances.

3. Gas is turned into liquid at a liquefaction plant.

4. In the past, the natural gas was burned at the oil field in a process known as flaring.

5. Avoiding construction also helps to preserve marine and coastal environments.

6. In addition, environmental disturbance will be minimized during decommissioning.

7. Many oil and gas companies are considering the economic and environmental benefits of floating liquefied natural gas.

8. Natural gas has been produced in this region for a long time.

Упр. 4. Найдите в правой колонке русские эквиваленты слов и словосочетаний из левой колонки.

 


1. shipping

2. gas production

3. consumer

4. low density

5. pipelines network

6. competitive

7. gas well

8. demand

9. store

10. salt dome

1. газовая скважина

2. спрос

3. соляной купол

4. перевозка груза

5. запасать

6. добыча газа

7. низкая плотность

8. конкурирующий

9. сеть трубопроводов

10. потребитель


Упр. 5. Найдите в правой колонке английские эквиваленты слов и словосочетаний из левой колонки.

 


1. автоцистерна

2. нефтяное месторождение

3. газовый резервуар

4. цена природного газа

5. морской

6. запасы газа

7. огромные объемы

8. установка сжижения (газа)

9. производитель газа

10. транспортировать природный газ

1. large volumes

2. gas producer

3. transport natural gas

4. tank truck

5. liquefaction plant

6. offshore

7. oil field

8. gas reservoir

9. price of natural gas

10. gas reserves


Упр. 6. Выразите согласие или несогласие со следующими высказываниями. Подтвердите свою точку зрения фактами из текста, используя следующие разговорные формулы: I don’t think so; it’s true; it’s not right; I can’t agree with you; you are wrong; on the one hand; on the other hand; according to the text.

1. Natural gas pipelines are impractical across oceans.

2. Natural gas is used to generate electricity and heat for desalination.

3. Like oil, natural gas is often found underwater in offshore gas fields.

4. The gas is injected in a time of low demand and extracted when demand picks up.

5. Gas is turned into liquid at a liquefaction plant.

6. At present, 12 countries are LNG exporters globally.

7. Other LNG carrier modifications are also available to international shippers.

8. Avoiding construction also helps preserve marine and coastal environments.

Упр. 7. Прочитайте и переведите следующие предложения на английский язык:

1. Вследствие низкой плотности, нелегко перекачивать и перевозить природный газ транспортными средствами.

2. Танкеры перевозят сжиженный природный газ через океан, в то время как автоцистерны могут перевозить сжиженный природный газ на короткие расстояния.

3. Сжиженный природный газ транспортируется под высоким давлением.

4. В прошлом, попутный газ, который был извлечен при добыче нефти, не мог быть выгодно продан и просто сжигался на нефтяном месторождении в процессе, известном как сжигание газа в факелах.

5. Хранение сжиженного природного газа осуществляется только в низкотемпературных (изотермичных) резервуарах.

6. Хранение и транспортировка сжатого природного газа происходит в специальных накопителях газа под давлением.

7. Используя криогенные насосы, сжиженный природный газ должен отгружаться в танкеры.

8. Добываемый в России природный газ поступает в магистральные газопроводы.

9. Газовое хранилище представляет собой геологическую структуру или искусственный резервуар, используемый для хранения газа.

10. Регазификация сжиженного природного газа это процесс преобразования СПГ из жидкого состояния в газообразное, после чего он становится пригодным для обычного использования – подачи по трубопроводам потребителям и закачки в газовые баллоны.

Упр. 8. Пользуясь словарем, письменно переведите следующие предложения:

1. Offshore gas development is emerging as the backbone of Russia’s gas sector operations: virtually all major Russian “new gas” projects are associated with offshore development.

2. At present, several firms are offering LNG carriers using different shipbuilding technologies.

3. There are no LNG tankers under construction in Russia at under construction in Russia at present.

4. Multi-modal transportation of LNG in tank-type containers is likely to provide a viable alternative to conventional LNG carrier shipments.

5. It’s widely known that cryogenic tanks largely differ in their capacity (working volume), LNG operating pressure, and admissible storage duration.

6. Drain free storage time is dependent on insulation choice which, in turn, is driving total costs.

7. For marine shipment, LNG is loaded into the main aluminium or stainless steel envelope.

8. This equipment offers additional applications such as gasification in rural areas, where laying pipe is believed impossible or uneconomical as well as smaller standalone utilities designed to meet local heating needs.

9. Natural gas storage plays a vital role in maintaining the reliability of supply needed to meet the demands of consumers.

10. The efficient and effective movement of natural gas from producing regions to consumption regions requires an extensive and elaborate transportation system.

Упр. 9. Ответьте на следующие вопросы.

1. Is it easy to store natural gas and transport by vehicle?

2. What is impractical across ocean?

3. Compressed natural gas is transported at high pressure, is not it?

4. In what forms may gas be sold to consumers?

5. Where is natural gas often stored?

6. What is to be built, to deliver liquefied natural gas to local storage?

7. Where may gas trucks and carries transport natural gas?

8. Is gas turned into liquid at a liquefaction plant?

9. Why was natural gas burned at the oil field?

10. What is now illegal in many countries?

Упр. 10. Перескажите текст. Используйте следующие разговорные формулы:

I’d like to say some words about; it’s important to say that; it should be pointed; as is known;

the text is about; the text deals with; the content of the text; it should be noted that; according to the text; the subject of the text is; as a matter of fact; I can add; I’d like to say that; broadly speaking; as far as I know; to my mind; in my opinion.

 

Приложение

Text 1.

Drilling.

Drilling is a cutting process that uses a drill bit to cut or enlarge a hole in solid materials. The drill bit is a multipoint, end cutting tool. It cuts by applying pressure and rotation to the workpiece, which forms chips at the cutting edge.

Drilled holes are characterized by their sharp edge on the entrance side and the presence of burrs on the exit side (unless they have been removed). Also, the inside of the hole usually has helical feed marks.

Drilling may affect the mechanical properties of the workpiece by creating low residual stresses around the hole opening and a very thin layer of highly stressed and disturbed material on the newly formed surface. This causes the workpiece to become more susceptible to corrosion at the stressed surface.

For fluted drill bits, any chips are removed via the flutes. Chips may be long spirals or small flakes, depending on the material, and process parameters. The type of chips formed can be an indicator of the machinability of the material, with long gummy chips reducing machinability.

When possible drilled holes should be located perpendicular to the workpiece surface. This minimizes the drill bit's tendency to "walk", that is, to be deflected, which causes the hole to be misplaced. The higher the length-to-diameter ratio of the drill bit, the higher the tendency to walk. The tendency to walk is also preempted in various other ways, which include:

· Establishing a centering mark or feature before drilling, such as by:

- Casting, molding, or forging a mark into the workpiece;

- Center punching;

- Spot drilling (i.e., center drilling);

- Spot facing, which is facing a certain area on a rough casting or forging to establish, essentially, an island of precisely known surface in a sea of imprecisely known surface.

· Constraining the position of the drill bit using a drill jig with drill bushings.

Surface finish in drilling may range from 32 to 500 microinches. Finish cuts will generate surfaces near 32 microinches, and roughing will be near 500 microinches.

Cutting fluid is commonly used to cool the drill bit, increase tool life, increase speeds and feeds, increase the surface finish, and aid in ejecting chips. Application of these fluids is usually done by flooding the workpiece or by applying a spray mist.

In deciding which drill(s) to use it is important to consider the task at hand and evaluate which drill would best accomplish the task. There are a variety of drill styles that each serve a different purpose. The subland drill is capable of drilling more than one diameter. The spade drill is used to drill larger hole sizes. The indexable drill is useful in managing chips.

 

Задание 1. Расскажите, что нового вы узнали из текста, используя следующие разговорные формулы:

I’d like to say some words about; it’s important to say that; it should be pointed; as is known;

the text is about; the text deals with; the content of the text; it should be noted that; according to the text; the subject of the text is; as a matter of fact; I can add; I’d like to say that; broadly speaking; as far as I know; to my mind; in my opinion.

 

Задание 2. Закончите предложение, с которого можно начать аннотацию текста:

The purpose of this text is to…

Text 2.

...





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