By way of influence on rock drilling methods are classified on mechanical and non-mechanical distinction drilling. By mechanical drilling, drilling tools directly affects the rock, destroying it, and if a non mechanical failure occurs without direct contact with the rock source of influence on it. Non-mechanical means (hydraulic, thermal, electrophysical) are under development and drilling for oil and gas wells are not currently used.
Mechanical drilling methods are divided into percussion and rotary. When percussion drilling destruction of rocks is a chisel, hanging on a rope. Drilling tool also includes a shock rod and the cable lock. He hung on the rope, which straddles unit mounted on a mast. Reciprocating chisel tool provides a drilling rig.
With the deepening of the well rope lengthens. Cylindricity wells is provided by turning the drill bit during operation.
To clean the face of shattered rock drilling tools periodically removed from the wells and bailer is lowered into it, like a long bucket with a valve at the bottom. When immersed in a mixture of bailer fluid (reservoir or poured on top) and drilled rock particles valve opens and the bailer is filled with this mixture. When lifting bailer valve is closed and the mixture is extracted to the top.
At the end of treatment in the face again falls well drilling tools and drilling continues.
To avoid the collapse of the borehole walls in her lowered casing, the length of which are increasing with the deepening of the face.
Oil and gas wells are constructed using rotary drilling. With this method does not break up rock beats, and destroyed a rotating drill bit, which acts on the axial load. The torque is transmitted to the bit or on the surface of the rotator (rotor) through a column of drill pipes (Rotary Drilling) or from the downhole motor (turbo-drill, electric drill, screw the motor), mounted directly above the drill bit.
Turbodrill – a hydraulic turbine, driven in rotation by means of injection wells in the drilling fluid. The electric drill is an electric motor is protected against the penetration of the liquid food which is served by cable to the surface. Screw engine – a type of downhole hydraulic machine in which to convert the energy of the flow of washing fluid into mechanical energy of the rotational motion of the screw mechanism is used.
By the nature of rock at the bottom distinguish drilling methods are classified on solid and core drilling. With the continuous drilling of rock disintegration over the entire area of the face. Core drilling involves the destruction of species only in the ring in order to extract the core – a cylindrical sample of rock for the whole or part of the length of the borehole. With the sampling sites studied properties, composition and structure of rocks, as well as the composition and properties of the fluid saturating the rock.
All drill bits are classified into three types:
1. chisel cutting-shearing action of destroying the rock vanes (blade bit);
2. crushing bit-shearing action of destroying the rock teeth, located on the cone (cone bits);
3. bit-cutting abrasive action of destroying the rock diamond grains or carbide rods, which are located in front of the drill bit (diamond and carbide bits.)
Задание 1. Прокомментируйте следующие тезисы, используя разговорные формулы:
The statement is right (wrong): it should be pointed; it should be noted; according to the text; as a matter of fact; broadly speaking; as far as I know; to my mind; in my opinion.
1.1. By way of influence on rock drilling methods are classified on mechanical and non-mechanical distinction drilling.
1.2. Oil and gas wells are constructed using percussion drilling.
1.3. By the nature of rock at the bottom distinguish drilling methods are classified on solid and core drilling.
1.4. All drill bits are classified into four types.
Задание 2. Составьте аннотацию текста.
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Задание 1. Определите основную идею текста, используя следующие разговорные формулы:
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Задание 2. Закончите предложение, с которого можно начать аннотацию текста:
The purpose of this text is to…