b) Describe any manager you know or an imaginary one using the following words and expressions:
to have competence / efficiency / an immense energy/ a gift for organization / courage, determination; to be two / three years from retirement; to work with a precision of a computer; to occupy an important post; to have one's share of optimism / courage; to do one's job (in an office) without any fuss; to be accustomed to exercise authority; to be able to get along with others older than oneself; to get more irritable; to bring out objections for frank discussions
Kinds of Managers
Levels of Managers
Managers can be differentiated according to their level in the organization. Although large organizations typically have a number of levels of management, the most common view considers three basic levels: top, middle and first-line managers.
Top managers make up the relatively small group of executives who control the organization. Titles found in this group include president, vice president and chief executive officer (CEO).
Top managers establish the organization’s goals, overall strategy and operating policies. They also officially represent the organization to the external environment by meeting with government officials, executives of other organizations and so forth. The job of a top manager is likely to be complex and varied. Top managers make decisions about such activities as acquiring other companies, investing in research and development, entering or abandoning various markets, and building new plants and office facilities. They often work long hours and spend much of their time in meetings and the telephone.
Middle managers are probably the largest group of managers in most organizations. Common middle - management titles include plant managers, operations manager and division head. Middle managers are primarily responsible for implementing the policies and plans developed by top management and for supervising and coordinating the activities of lower level managers. Plant managers, for example, handle inventory management, quality control, equipment failures, and minor union problems. They also coordinate the work of supervisors within the plant. In recent years many organizations have thinned the ranks of middle managers, in order to lower costs and rid themselves of excess bureaucracy. Middle managers are necessary to bridge the upper and lower levels of the organization and to implement the strategies developed at the top. They can also be a significant source of innovation and productivity when given the autonomy to make decisions affecting their operating units.
First-line managers supervise and coordinate the activities of operating employees. Common titles for first-line managers are foreman, supervisor and office manager. A shift foreman within a Ford assembly plant is a first-line manager. These are often the first positions held by employees who enter management from the ranks of operating personnel. In contrast to top and middle managers, first-line managers typically spend a large proportion of their time supervising the work of subordinates.
Areas of Management
Financial managers deal primarily with an organization's financial resources. Their areas of concern include accounting, cash management and investments. In some businesses such as banking, financial managers are found in especially large numbers.
Operations managers are primarily concerned with establishing the systems that create an organization's products and services. Typical responsibilities include production control, inventor control, plant layout and site selection.
Human Resource Managers
Human resource managers are concerned with hiring, maintaining and discharging employees. They are typically involved in human resource planning, employee recruitment and selection, training and development, designing compensation and benefit systems, formulating performance appraisal systems and discharging low-performing and problem employees. Until the last several years human resource managers were not considered to be particularly important in many organizations. Top managers now recognize their value, however, in part because of increased awareness of the contributions of human resources and in part because of the complex legal environment of human resource management. Consequently, although no large companies have CEOs from the ranks of human resource executives, these executives are now making great strides up the organizational ladder.
Administrative, or general, managers are not associated with any particular management specialty. Probably the best example of an administrative management position is that of a hospital or clinic administrator. Administrative managers tend to be generalize; they have some basic familiarity with all functional areas of management rather than specialized training in any one area.
Other Kinds of Managers
Many organizations have specialized management positions in addition to those already described. Public relations managers, for example, deal with the public and media for firms such as Philip Morris and Dow Chemical to protect and enhance the image of the organization. Research and development (R&D) managers coordinate the activities of scientists and engineers working on scientific projects in organizations such as Monsanto, NASA, and Merck. International consultants are used in organizations such as the Prudential insurance Company to provide, specialized expert advice, to operating managers. Many areas of international management are coordinated by specialized managers in organizations like Eli Lilly and Rockwell International. The number, nature and importance of these specialized managers vary tremendously from one organization to another. As contemporary organizations continue to grow in complexity and size, the number and importance of such managers are also likely to increase.