1. When was Moscow founded?
2. What is the total area of modern Moscow?
3. What is the population of Moscow?
4. How can you characterize the city’s role as a cultural centre?
5. Is Moscow rich in monuments? What monuments in Moscow do you know?
6. What is Teatralnaya Square famous for?
7. What is situated on Red Square?
8. What do you know about St. Basil’s Cathedral?
9. What can you see on the territory of the Kremlin?
10. Where is Moscow University situated?
Exercise 2. Translate into English
1. Москва - крупнейший город в России. Он расположен на семи холмах по берегам Москвы-реки.
2. 1147 - первое упоминание Москвы в летописях.
3. Город был укреплен и стал торговым центром в конце 12 века.
4. Москва - местонахождение правительства Российской Федерации.
5. В Москве находится около 80 НИИ, Академия наук, Российская государственная библиотека.
6. Самые большие музеи и лучшие театры находятся в Москве.
Exercise 3. Transform the dialogues into indirect speech
- Is it possible to see anything of Moscow in one or two days?
- Well, yes, but, of course, not half enough.
- What do you think I ought to see first?
- I suggest to start with Red Square, If you like I can show you round Red Square.
- The heart of Moscow is the Kremlin. It has a long history.
- As far as I know it used to be a fortress, a residence of the tsars.
- The Kremlin is a singular monument to Russian culture, once hidden from the people, now belonging to them and open to the public.
- I was told the tallest towers of the Kremlin are crowned by five - pointed ruby stars, each of which weighs nearly a ton and can be seen far wide.
- Exactly so. The Kremlin and St. Basil’s Cathedral are really unique creations. They are masterpieces of Russian architecture.
- Majestic sights!
- The cathedrals, palaces, halls and buildings of the Kremlin are remarkable museums containing unique items associated with Russian history: collections of precious stones, gold and silver objects, richly adorned arms, rare fabrics, coronation gowns, thrones, the royal carriages and sleighs, gifts to the tsars from the foreign embassies of the time.
- What is on the north side of the square?
- This is the History Museum. Its collections acquaint the visitor with the Russian history from ancient times to the end of the 19 th century.
- What building is over there in the east side of the square?
- It is the Department Store, better known as GUM.
- For centures the eastern side of Red Square had been associated with trading. The first shops were built here in the 16 th century. Today on their site stands GUM.
- Unfortunately, but my stay in Moscow is coming to an end. It’s a pity I have to leave.
- Next time you’ll see other historic places of Moscow. There are many palaces, old mansions, monuments associated with the history of our country. But it requires a special tour.
- Oh, yes, I do understand. Moscow can’t be seen in a day.
- Excuse me, I’m a bit lost.
- Could you tell me the way to Red Square?
- Yes, certainly.
- Walk straight ahead and then turn left.
- Is it a long way from here?
- Oh, no. It’ll take you about 10 minutes to get there.
- Thanks very much.
- Not at all.
- Pardon me, officer. How can I get to the nearest post-office?
- Go along the street as far as red Square. Keep to the right. You will pass a big department store on your right walk straight along it as far as the subway. Come out on your left. The post-office is the second turning in the left on the corner of Gorky and Ogaryov streets. You can’t miss it.
- Thank you, officer.
- That’s all right.
Topic 7 The USA
The USA is the fourth largest country in the world (after Russia, Canada and China). Including the states of Alaska and Hawaii, the US covers an area of 9 million square km. It borders Canada to the North. Besides, it is such a large country that it covers 4 times zone. Almost every kind of climate may be found there but the country lies mostly in the temperate zone. The US is a varied land of forests and mountains. If we look at the map of the USA, we can see lowlands and mountains. The center of the country is marked by the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. These rivers form a 19000 km system of waterways that are connected to the Great Lakes in the North by a canal. The Mississippi is one of the world's great rivers and it was known to American Indians as the "father of waters". To the north on clear days, airline passengers may see the five Great Lakes located between the US and Canada.
The USA is one of the greatest industrial nations in the world. With only about 5% of the world's population and about 6% of its land area, the US produces around 25% of the world's industrial products, agricultural goods, and services. There are many reasons, which can explain why the USA has been able to become the leading industrial and agricultural nation. One is its size and natural resources. The rapid progress of American industry and agriculture is also the result of the constant willingness to experiment, develop innovation, and to find new solutions to old problems.
The USA has often been called "a nation of immigrants" because the country was built and developed by generations of immigrants. Even today America continues to take in more immigrants than any other country in the world. But in spite of all the different cultural traditions, foreign origins, racial groups, and religions, this vast land is one country, whose people speak the same language, all part of the same culture following the same national laws and regulations.
The American people are always on the move, from one part of the country to another, from farm to city, from the city to the suburbs. 17% of all Americans move to new homes every year, searching for job opportunities, a better climate, or for other reasons. Today 3 out of 4 Americans live in towns, cities or suburbs. The largest cities of the USA are New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Boston, Philadelphia, Detroit, Houston, Baltimore, Washington, San Francisco.
New York City is America's largest city. Its population in 1990 was 7.3 million. It is a city of great beauty and delete is also a leading cultural center. The USA is a federal republic, a union of 50 states. The flag of the USA is called "Stars and Stripes". In the USA the American flag is a very important symbol of the country and is supposed to be treated with respect.
Topic 8 Canada
Canada is the second largest country in the world. Only Russia has a greater land area. Canada is situated in North America. Canada is slightly larger than the United States, but has only about a tenth as many people. About 28 million people live in Canada. About 80% of the population live within 320 km of the southern border. Much of the rest of Canada is uninhabited or thinly populated because of severe natural conditions.
Canada is a federation of 10 provinces and 2 territories. Canada is an independent nation. But according to the Constitution Act of 1982 British Monarch, Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom is recognized as Queen of Canada.
This symbolizes the country's strong ties to Britain. Canada was ruled by Britain completely until 1867, when Canada gained control of its domestic affairs. Britain governed Canada's foreign affairs until 1931, when Canada gained full independence.
Canada's people are varied. About 57% of all Canadians have some English ancestry and about 32% have some French ancestry. Both English and French are official languages of the country.
French Canadians, most of them live in the provinces of Quebec, have kept the language and customs of their ancestors. Other large ethnic groups are German, Irish and Scottish people. Native people — American Indians and Eskimos — make up about 2% of the country's population. 77% of Canada's people live in cities or towns. Toronto and Montreal are the largest urban areas. Ottawa is the capital of the country.
Today, maintaining a sense of community is one of the major problems in Canada because of differences among the provinces and territories. Many Canadians in western and eastern parts of the country feel that the federal government does not pay enough attention to their problems. 80% of Quebec's population are French Canadians. Many of them believe that their province should recieve a special recognition in the Canadian constitution.
Topic 9 Great Britain
The British Isles
The British Isles consist of two main islands: Great Britain and Ireland. These and over five hundred small islands are known collectively as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Their total area is about 120.000 square miles, i.e. one thirtieth of the size of Europe. Great Britain proper comprises England, Wales and Scotland. The West coast is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea, its East coast by the North Sea and the South coast by the English Channel.
Once the British Isles were part of the mainland of Europe: the chalk ridge which ends in the cliffs at Dover reappears on the coast of France opposite and the coal that lies beneath the chalk in Kent is also found in France. This suggest that there was originally no break between these same geological formations on either side of the Strait.
The seas round the British Isles are shallow. The North Sea is nowhere more than 600 feet deep. This shallowness is in some ways an advantage, Shallow water is warmer than deep water and helps to keep the shores from extreme cold. The coast line is deeply indented. This indentation gives a good supply of splendid harbours for ships and owing to the shape of the country there is no point in it that is more than seventy miles from the sea. The western coats are very broken by high rocky cliffs and the eastern are more regular in outline.
There are three distinct regions in Scotland. There is the Highlands, then there is the central plain or Lowlands and finally there are the southern uplands with their gently rounded hills where the sheep wander.
In England and Wales all the high land is in the west and northwest.
The south-eastern plain reaches the west coast at the Bristol Channel and by the mouths of the rivers Dee and Mersey. The Cheviots separates England from Scotland in the North, the Pennines going down England like a backbone and the Cumbrian mountains of the Lake District, one of the loveliest parts of England.
The south eastern part of England is a low-lying land with gentle hills and a coast which is regular in outline, sandy or muddy, with occasional chalk cliffs and inland, a lovely pattern of green and gold-for most of England’s wheat is grown here – and brown plough – land with pleasant farms and cottages in their midst.
The longest rivers, except the Severn and Clyde, flow into the North Sea. The rivers of Britain are no great value as water-ways – the longest, the Thames, is a little over 200 miles – and few of them are navigable. In the estuaries of the Thames, Mersey, Tyne, Clude, Tay, Forth and Bristol Avon are some of the greatest ports.
The outstanding features of the climate of Britain are its humidity, its mildness, and its variability. These characteristics are due to the fact that the prevailing winds blow from the ocean, they are mild in winter and cool in summer, and are heavily charged with moisture at all times. The wettest parts of Britain are: the Western Highlands of Scotland, the Lake District, and North Wales. The eastern side of Britain is said to be in the rain-shadow. The wettest seasons are autumn and winter but in the district between the Humber and the Thames most rain falls in summer half of the year. Oxford, for example, has 29 percent of its rain in summer and only 22 percent in winter.
Britain has warmer winters than any other district in the same latitude,
The Gulf Stream flows from the Gulf of Mexico transfers a great deal of heat from equatorial regions to north-western Europe. For many parts of the British Isles February is the coldest month and usually August the hottest month.
England is a highly developed industrial country. One of the leading industries of Great Britain is the textile industry.
The main centres of the textile region are Liverpool and Manchester. Manchester is the chief cotton manufacturing city surrounded by a number of towns. Every town has specialized in producing certain kinds of yarn and fabrics. Plants producing textile machinery not only satisfy the needs of British industry but also export great quantities of machinery to the other countries. Northern and Western England is a coal, metal and textile country. The most ancient centres of English iron and steel industry are Birmingham and Sheffield.
Iron smelting based on local ore deposits has been practised here since ancient times. In the period of England’s industrialization Birmingham and Sheffield played the leading role in the creation of England’s heavy industry. Newcastle is a city famous for its shipbuilding yards and its export of coal.
Although Britain is a densely populated, industrialized country, agriculture is still one of its most important industries. The south of England is rural, with many fertile valleys, well-cultivated fields and pastures. The south - eastern coast is well -known for its picturesque scenery and mild climate and a number of popular resorts. On the southern coast of England there are many large ports, among them: Southampton, Portsmouth, Plymouth.
to comprise - заключать в себе, охватывать
shallow - мелкий
advantage - преимущество
to intent - вырезать, делать выемку
harbour - гавань
distinct - определенный; отдельный; отличный (от других)
plain - равнина
uplands - гористая часть страны
mouth - устье (реки)
backbone - хребет
the Lake District - Озерный Край (очень красивое место, которое известно благодаря трем поэтам, которые там жили)
estuary - эстуарий, широкое устье реки
humidity - влажность, сырость
variability - изменчивость, непостоянство
moisture - влажность, влага
to charge - насыщать
yarn - пряжа; нить
fabric - ткань, материал
deposits - залежи
to practise - заниматься (чем-либо); практиковать
yards - верфи
fertile - плодородный
resort - курорт
Exercise 1.Answer the questions:
1. What do we call the group of islands situated to the north-west of Europe?
2. What are the names of the biggest islands?
3. Do the United Kingdom and Great Britain mean the same?
4. What countries are situated on the British Isles? What are their capitals?
5. What are the names of the waters washing the coasts of the British Isles?
6. How can you characterize the surface of the British Isles?
7. What distinct regions are there in Scotland?
8. Are there a lot of long and deep rivers in Great Britain?
9. What are the most important rivers in Great Britain?
10. What are the names of the chief mountain ranges on the island?
11. What is the climate of Great Britain?
12. Why is the climate of the British Isles milder than that of the Continent?
13. The UK is a highly developed industrial country, isn’t it? What does it produce and export?
14. What industrial cities are there in Great Britain?