Exercise 2. Speak according to the following plan:
1. Oxford is one of the most famous towns in Europe.
2. Colleges present a lovely picture.
3. The role of the central University.
4. Great emphasis is laid on «tutorials».
5. In Cambridge everything is very green and peaceful.
6. What is the «common plan» on which the Colleges are built?
7. The most perfect example of the 15 th century architecture.
8. Which is the older University, Oxford or Cambridge?
The University consists of 32 colleges: 27 colleges for men and 5 colleges for women. There are 16 faculties there. Oxford (like Cambridge) is a collection of colleges, each self-governing and independent. The colleges are the real living Oxford and each has its own character and individuality. For example, most of the men at Queen’s College come from the North of England, those at Jesus College from Wales, Brasenose has a high reputation for its rugger, Magdalen for its rowing men. But there are students of all kinds in each college. Every college has its arts men and its science men, its medical students and its engineers. Every student follows his own course of study, but he gains a lot from living among those who represent all other branches.
The term of studies lasts for 10 weeks. There are three terms in the Oxford academic year. Within the first week the freshman meets his tutor who tells the student about his plans, the lectures which he must take, about the requirements for the examination which he will take, about the course of reading for him.
Attendance at lectures in not compulsory. Once every week each undergraduate goes to his tutor’s room to read out an essay which he has written and discuss this essay with the tutor. At the end of each term the progress of the students is tested by the college examinations. They pay great attention to athletics at the University. The students are engaged in different kinds of sports, take part in competitions between Oxford and Cambridge Universities.
This is how a student spends his day. His working hours are from 9 to 1. At 9 o’clock he sees his tutor or goes to the library, or attends lectures. From 2 to 5 he is engaged in sports and all kinds of exercise. From 5 to 7 he works in the library or laboratory. At 7 o’clock they have dinnertime. After dinner the students have club activities, debating societies. By 10 o’clock the student must be in the college, as most of students live in the colleges, only some of them live in lodgings in the town.
to gain - получать; выиграть
freshman - первокурсник
tutor - преподаватель, который ведет практические занятия
в группе, а также следит за учебой и дисциплиной студентов
within the first week - в течение (не позднее) первой недели
attendance - посещение, присутствие
to live in lodgings - снимать комнату
debating society - дискуссионный клуб
to take club activities - участвовать в работе клуба
Exercise 1. Answer the questions:
1. How many colleges are there at Oxford?
2. How many terms are there in the Oxford academic year?
3. What does a tutor do?
4. In what way do they test the progress of the students?
5. Do they pay great attention to athletics at the University?
6. How does a student spend his working day?
Topic 3 Students` life
Primary and Secondary Education in the United States
(Mr. Lee and Mr. Canfield)
Mr. L. Good morning, Mr. Canfield. Some time ago you promised to give me a general picture of Primary and Secondary education in the United States. Do you happen to have any free time this morning?
Mr. C. Yes, I do. Sit down right here, Mr. Lee, and we can begin. You know my son Jerry, don’t you?
Mr. L. Of course. He is in College now, isn’t he?
Mr. C. Yes, he is in his second year at Stanford University. I’ll give you a resume of his early education, as an illustration. He entered Grammar school at the age of six. After attending Grammar school for eight years he graduated at the age of fourteen and entered High school. He attended High school for four years. Upon graduating he was eighteen years old and ready for College.
Mr. L. Is the system of eight years for Grammar school and four years for High school in general use too up the country?
Mr. C. Formerly it was, but now a new plan is steadily replacing it. It’s called the six-three-three plan. 6 years of Grammar school, 3 years of Junior High school and 3 years of Senior High School.
Mr. L. Does the Government control the choice of plans?
Mr. C. No, the National Government has no control whatsoever over the school. Each state administers its own system. This explains the existence of wide differences in the educational systems of various states. For instance, the richer states can afford better schools and better teachers.
Mr. L. But all the states have basically similar systems don’t they?
Mr. C. Oh, yes. Every state provides all children with the free education through High school. Some states also provide free books and free transportation. So it costs the parents very little to send their children to school. Furthermore laws in every state require all the children to attend school for a certain period, usually from the age of 6 to 16.
Mr. L. How do the objectives of Grammar school compare to those of High school?
Mr. C. The Grammar school attempts to give the students a firm knowledge if the basic subjects such as reading, writing, spelling, and arithmetic. All students receive approximately the same training. On the other hand, High school students can choose some of their subjects. Only English, science, American History and a few others remain compulsory.
Mr. L. What determines the student’s choice of subjects?
Mr. C. It depends on his plans for the future. Some students take a College Preparatory Course. This course consists mainly of academic subjects. However, the majority of High school students do not go to College. To meet the need of those students the High school offers a wide variety of subjects, with strong emphasis on vocational training. They receive training in some specific trade and upon leaving school they are better fitted to earn a decent living.
Mr. L. Do girls and boys go to the same school?
Mr. C. Yes, education is exactly the same for boys and girls. They attend the same school and can take the same courses.
Mr. L. What about the length of the school day and the school year?
Mr. C. Classes are usually from 8.30 till 3, five days a week. Saturday and Sunday are holidays. The school year lasts for nine months from September to June. During the summer the students have three months’ vacations.
Mr. L. One final question, Mr. Canfield. Are the educators considering any other basic changes besides the change to the 6-3-3 plan?
Mr. C. Yes, a very important one. A few moments ago I was speaking to you of the inequality of the State educational System. Some people are trying to eliminate these inequalities through a plan of national Aid. Educators all over the country are now debating the issue. However, this question is a very complicated one. We can discuss it during your next visit.
Mr. L. Fine. Good bye, Mr. Canfield and thank you very much.
a general picture - общее представление
Grammar school - начальная школа в США
High school (Am.) - средняя школа
formerly - раньше
Junior - младший
senior - старший
to administer - управлять
state - штат
objective - целевая установка
science - общенаучные предметы
academic subjects - учебные дисциплины
vocational training - профессионально-техническое обучение
some specific trade - узкая профессия
educator - работник в области образования
to consider - зд. готовить
inequality - различные системы и условия образования
Do you happen to have any free time? - Не располагаете ли вы случайно свободным временем?
I’ll give you a resume. - Я кратко расскажу вам.
a new plan is steadily replacing it - новый план заменяет ее
control the choice of plans - определяет выбор учебного плана
to meet the needs - чтобы помочь
with strong emphasis on - уделяя особое внимание
they are better fitted to earn a decent living - они лучше подготовлены к тому, чтобы зарабатывать себе на жизнь
to debate the issue - обсуждать вопрос
Exercise 1. Answer these questions:
1. What were Mr. Lee and Mr. Canfield talking about?
2. At what age do American children go to school?
3. How long do they study in Grammar school?
4. What school do they enter after graduating Grammar school?
5. What’s the new Government plan of primary and secondary education?
6. Under whose control are American schools?
7. Is High school education free in America?
8. What kind of subjects are studied in American schools?
University Education in the U.S. (Sreakers - Dr. J. and Dr. Barton) Dr. J. is a visiting professor from another country.
J. I am glad to have this opportunity to talk with you, Dr. Barton. Do you mind my asking some questions about the Universities in America?
B. Certainly not, Dr. J. Education is my business and my hobby. What do you want to know?
J. First, do you have a National University?
B. No, we don’ t. Each state controls and supports at least one university. The National Government gives no direct financial aid to these state schools.
J. Can the students go to the University free of charge?
B. No, everyone must put a tuition fee. The amount varies from State to State. A student’s total expenses throughout the year are about 1500 dollars. This creates a financial hardship for some people. However each University offers a number of scholarships to deserving students. Many of the students work to pay part of their expenses.
J. Your Universities are unique in one respect, I believe. Most of them have a central campus, don’t they?
B. Yes, they do. This is for the convenience of the student. For example, you generally find the college of Law, Business, Medicine, Engineering, Agriculture, Music and Journalism on one campus. So a student can attend courses at the various colleges.
J. Don’t all students take the same courses?
B. Well yes and no. During the first two years they follow somewhat a basic program. That is each student must elect at least one course from each of these basic fields of study: English, science, modern languages, history and physical education.
J. When do they specialize in their particular field of study?
B. After the first two years each student majors in one subject and minors in a closely relate subject. My son, for example, is majoring in history with a minor in sociality. In addition to his major and minor courses he can select other subjects according to his interests or profession.
J. What degrees do American Universities offer?
B. After completing 4 years of work the student receives the Bachelor Degree. It might be either a B.S. - Bachelor of Science or a B.A. - Bachelor of Arts. With an additional year of study he may receive a Master’s Degree and after 2 or 3 years of graduate work and the writing of a dissertation he receives a Doctorate.
J. Do your students take an oral examination over 4 years of work before receiving a Bachelor’s Degree?
B. No, they don’ t. They have a final written examination at the end of each course. They take an oral examination and write theses only for the advanced degrees.
J. That clears up most of my questions, Doctor Barton. It’s good to have this information from someone directly connected with University life. I hope to visit several American Universities while I’m here in the United States.
B. It has been a pleasure to talk with you.
direct financial aid - непосредственная финансовая помощь
free of charge - бесплатно
tuition fee - плата за обучение
total expenses - вся стоимость
to off - представлять
deserving students - студенты, имеющие право на стипендию
unique in one respect - отличаются одной особенностью
campus (Am.) - территория университета
basic program - основная программа
science - общенаучные дисциплины
in their particular field of study - в своей области знания
to major - специализироваться (по выбранному профилирующему предмету)
to minor - специализация по предмету, связанному с основным
degree - ученая степень
Bachelor of Science - бакалавр естественных наук
Bachelor of Arts - бакалавр искусств
Master’s Degree - степень магистра
thesis - диссертация
advanced degree - зд. ученая степень
That clears up most of my questions - Вы ответили на большинство интересующих меня вопросов
Exercise 1. Answer these questions:
1. Does the National Government control American Universities?
2. What government body finances and controls American Universities?
3. Is the university education free of charge in the USA?
4. What is a student’s tuition fee?
5. What students get scholarships from their University?
6. What are many American students obliged to do if they don’t get scholarships?
7. What is a University campus?
8. What colleges can be found on one central campus?
9. How long do American students follow the same basic program (in the chosen course)?