Topic 1 Job application
The Right Resume for You
The resume is a selling tool that outlines your skills and experience so an employer can see, at a glance, how you can contribute to the employer’s workplace.
Your resume has to sell you in short order. While you may have all the requirements for a particular position, your resume is a failure if the employer does not instantly come to the conclusion that you “have what it takes.” The first hurdle your resume has to pass – whether it ends up in the “consider file” or the “reject file” – may take less than thirty seconds. The most effective resumes are clearly focused on a specific job title and address the employer’s stated requirements for the position. The more you know about the duties and skills required for the job – and organize your resume around these points – the more effective the resume.
You will need information to write a good resume. Not just information about jobs you’ve held in the past but also information to select the most relevant accomplishments, skills and experience for this position. The more you know about the employer and the position, the more you can tailor your resume to fit the job. Chronological Resume
The chronological resume is organized by job titles with the most recent position listed first. Employers tend to prefer the chronological resume because the format lists prior positions beginning with the most current. Employers perceive this resume style as fact-based and easily skimmed.
It works best for job seekers with solid experience and a logical job history, the chronological resume is the most effective. Career changers and those who lack formal on-the-job experience (like new graduates) find this resume the most difficult to write.
The functional resume rearranges employment history into sections that highlight areas of skill and accomplishment.
Some employers dislike functional resumes IF they find it difficult to match up skills with actual job titles, level of responsibility and dates of experience. You can, and should avoid or minimize this objection by including the company name in the “bullet” describing each accomplishment.
A detailed, lengthy and structured listing of education, publications, projects, awards and work history. Curriculum vitae for a mid-career candidate may be as long as twenty pages.
Rather than a resume, a curriculum vita (often called a “C.V.” or “Vita”) is required for certain positions: educators and scientists most commonly.
Job seekers with extensive academic and professional credentials applying for positions in education or research. Check with an advisor or others in your field if you are unsure whether a C.V. or a resume is expected.
In general, include any and all information that is pertinent to your qualifications for the job. The following is a list of possible categories of information to include:
• Name, Address, Phone Number, E-mail Address
• Objective: What exactly are you applying for?
• Academic Preparation: College degrees with details
• Relevant Work Experience
• Specific Skills: Computer programs, Lab techniques, etc.
• Papers etc. submitted for publication
• Current research interests
• Paper/Posters presented at conferences
• Grants received
• Professional organization memberships
• Professional services
• Honors and awards
On the other hand, do not include on your curriculum vitae the kinds of personal information that have nothing to do with your qualifications for the position. Here are some items that range from tasteless to illegal if included. Do not list your height, weight, or any other physical characteristic. Do not give your age, marital status, sexual preferences, racial or ethnic identity, political or religious affiliations, place of birth, or other information of this kind. Do not attach a photograph.
Your finished CV should be on good quality, standard 8.5x11 inch paper that is white (or something very close to white). It should, of course, be typed or printed on one side of the page only, and copies should be neat and letter-quality dark. It is acceptable to staple the pages in the upper left corner. Make the layout look highly organized and easy to peruse. Use capitals, underlines, bold print and bullets appropriately to lead the reader’s eyes where you want them to go. Use ample blank space between sections, and leave generous margins on all four edges. This is not a time to save paper. Make the most important information stand out on the left side of the page. Create a document that welcomes the reader’s attention.
Curriculum Vitae - краткое жизнеописание
Employer - работодатель
Job seeker – ищущий работу
To reject - отвергать
Scientist - ученый
Tasteless - безвкусный
Illegal - незаконный
Research - исследование
Skill – навык, умение
Awards – награды
Experience - опыт
Education – образование
Position – должность
Exercise 1. Answer the questions:
Why do you need resume?
What kind of resume do you know?
What positions is Curriculum Vitae usually required for?
What information is usually included in CV?
What are the requirements to CV?
Exercise 2. Study CV samples given in Supplement 3 and create your own CV.
348 Somerset Road Hayward, CA 94541 (510) 123-4567
A position of Sales Coordinator, Representative or Account Executive.
SUMMARY OF QUALIFICATIONS
• Twelve years of successful experience in direct sales of a range of products and services.
• Extensive practical hands-on experience as co-owner and manager of a small business.
• Motivated and enthusiastic about developing good relations with clients.
• Effective working alone or as a cooperative team member.
• Professional in appearance and presentation.
SALES & NEW ACCOUNT DEVELOPMENT
• Increased a small publication’s advertising revenue through market research and promotion.
• Developed new distribution outlets for a special-interest magazine in Northern California
– Made cold calls and follow-up visits to retail outlets throughout the region.
– Organized detailed route books and financial recordkeeping.
– Successfully increased readership by more than 40 per cent over a two-year period.
• Served as vendor representative for Jana Imports:
– Coordinated product information and distribution for 75 field representatives and major accounts.
– Promoted giftware products at trade shows throughout the region.
– Handled face-to-face contacts with new and established customers.
• Oversaw the production of advertising and its placement in major trade publications.
ADVERTISING, MARKETING, DISTRIBUTION
• Organized and styled merchandise for effective presentation in a 20-page giftware catalog.
• Kept accurate, current computer records of inventory, international suppliers, brokers, shippers, etc.
• Handled all aspects of order taking and processing, both at Bill’s Dairy and Jana Imports.
1991–present Sales Coordinator JANA IMPORTS, Oakland
1986–90 Distribution Coordinator DEJA VU PUBLISHING CO., San Rafael
1980–85 Co-Owner / Manager BILL’S DAIRY PRODUCTS, Livermore
Bay City College, San Francisco, Liberal arts studies 1977–80
7667 West Highway 421 Silver City, NM 98765
Experienced in pipeline and oil field construction work.
Since 1986, specialist in asbestos abatement, including job management and crew supervision.
1990–present GENERAL SUPERINTENDENT, SPRAY SYSTEMS ENVIRON-MENTAL, PHOENIX, AZ
• Superintendent for asbestos abatement contractor at Chino Mines of Hurley, NM. Supervise 30-person crew, set up jobs, oversee safety, order materials, and assure that job is done on time.
• Current job involved setting up freestanding asbestos containments around 70-foot-high boilers in a working copper smelter. This has been accomplished with no disruption to plant operations or personnel.
1986–89 SUPERINTENDENT, BCP CONSTRUCTION, PHOENIX, AZ
Asbestos abatement for schools, hospitals, and office buildings from Kentucky to California. Ran crews of one to four workers.
• Supervised complete asbestos abatement project for three floors of a high rise building (Mera Bank) in Phoenix, AZ.
1980–86 APPRENTICE WELDER, WAYNE HOUSTON WELDING, MEDICINE HAT, ALBERTA, CANADA
• General welding duties, pipe cutting, and job set-up.
1975–80 ASSISTANT DRILLER, ROUGHNECK; VARIOUS OIL COMPANIES, ALBERTA, and CANADA
• Worked on large oil rigs.
EDUCATION & TRAINING
1989 Advanced Supervision of Abatement, Georgia Inst. of Technology.
1988 Certificate, abatement work in schools under Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act, Hager Labs.
1987 Abatement Supervisor Training, Georgia Inst. of Technology.
1985 Certificate, Welder First Class, Southern Alberta Inst. of Technology.
Topic 2 Education
Education in Britain
British education has many different faces, but one goal. Its aim is to realize the potential of all, for the good of the individual and society as a whole.
Compulsory primary education begins at the age of 5 in England, Wales and Scotland, and 4 in Northern Ireland. Around half of 3-and 4-year olds in Britain receive nursery education, and many other children attend preschool playgroups, mostly organized by parents. Children usually start their school career in an infant school and move to a junior school or department at age 7. In some parts of the country, though, children begin at a first school at age 5, and move on to a middle school at age 8, 9, or 10. Primary schools vary in size and location, some having as few as two teachers and others as many as 30.
At the age of 11 most children go to a comprehensive school where they stay until they are 16. In the past children went to different types of secondary schools, but in most parts of the country everybody now goes to a comprehensive.
In Britain most children of compulsory secondary school age (11 to 16) receive free education financed from public funds. Some parents, who do not want their children to go to a comprehensive pay to send them to a private school. The most expensive and prestigious private schools are actually called public school.
At 7 and 11 years old (and at secondary school, at 14 and 16), teachers measure children’s progress in each subject against attainment targets. In English, for instance, there are five basic targets: speaking and listening; reading; writing; spelling; and handwriting. For each target, there are ten levels of attainment. For example, in order to achieve attainment level 2 in writing, a child should, amongst other things, be able to structure sequences of real or imagined events coherently in chronological accounts - this could be in an account of a family occasion, or in a practical mathematics task, or in an adventure story.
At the age of 16 children take their examinations. Most take General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) qualifications. Ordinary Levels - normally called just «O» Levels. Children take «O» Levels in as many subjects as they want to; some take one of two, others take as many as nine or ten. If you get good «O» Levels results, you can stay on at school until you are 18, in the Sixth Form. Those who stay on at school after GCSE usually study for two further years for «A» (Advanced) level exams in two or there subjects. They can broaden their range by taking «AS» levels, which demand the same standard of work as «A» levels but cover only half the content, or by taking courses leading to vocational qualifications. Education doesn’t stop with leaving school. Further education in particular is learning which, with its strong ties with commerce and industry, is vital in the effort to keep Britain economically competitive.
In 1991 the Government published plans aiming to ensure that everyone over 16 is encouraged to continue in education or training, and to remove barriers between academic and vocational education. Over 500 colleges of further education run courses on everything from catering to business studies. Most further education courses are vocational, but many colleges offer more academic courses, such as GCSE, and «A» levels. There are 400.000 full-time further educational students and 4 million who attend college part-time, by day or block release from their jobs or in the evening.
The new National Vocational Qualifications are designed to ensure the relevance of vocational qualifications to employers. More than 2,5 million adults aged 19 or over enroll each year on further education courses- which lead to qualifications or access to higher education; or that teach a craft, a sport, or an aspect of culture. All Britain’s universities enjoy complete academic freedom. They appoint their own staff and decide what and how to teach.
The tradition of excellence dates back to the 12 th and 13 th centuries, when Oxford and Cambridge Universities were founded. Four Scottish universities were established in the 14 th and 15 th centuries, while the rest of Britain’s 47 universities were set up in the last 200 years. First degree courses usually last three or four years. The Open University is a little different, because it relies on distance- learning. Prospective students don’t require any conventional academic qualifications to enroll, but the standards of Open University degrees are as high as at other universities.
England and Wales’s 34 polytechnics tend to be more vocationally - orientated than universities, providing degree and sub-degree vocational courses as well as traditional academic degree courses. Many polytechnics (and the 13 central institutions in Scotland) have close links with business, and many students have jobs and attend part-time. For those without standard entry qualifications, access and foundation courses can provide a way in to higher education. The number of access courses in Britain is increasing rapidly.
сompulsory - обязательный
primary education - начальная школа
infant school - начальные классы
junior school - средние классы
nursery education - дошкольное обучение
comprehensive school - общеобразовательная школа
free education - бесплатное образование
private school - частная школа
public school - частная школа
target - цель; план; задания; состязания; классовая или контрольная цифра
attainment - успеваемость; (pl) навыки, знания
structure - структура; строение; строй
sequence - последовательность, порядок, следование
coherent - связный, согласованный, последовательный
account - расчет, подсчет; важность, значение
GCSE - General Certificate of Secondary Education – общий аттестат о среднем образовании, экзамен на аттестат о среднем образовании
Ordinary level («O») - обычный уровень
Advanced level («A») - продвинутый уровень
vocational - профессиональный
academic - общеобразовательный
to encourage - поддерживать, поощрять; подстрекать
to cater - обслуживать
full-time study - дневное обучение
part-time study - заочное или вечернее обучение
adult - взрослый
to enrol - вносить в список (учащихся); регистрировать
access - доступ
the Open University - открытый университет
conventional - обычный, общепринятый, традиционный
degree - степень