Education in Russia
Citizens of Russia have the right to education which is guaranteed by the Constitution. The public educational system in this country incorporates pre-school, secondary school, specialized secondary and higher education.
Pre-school consists of kindergartens and creches. Children there learn reading, writing and arithmetic. But pre-school education isn't compulsory,children can get it at home.
Compulsory education is for children from 6(7) to 17 years of age.
The main link in the system of education is the secondary school which prepares the younger generation for life and work in modern production. There are various types of schools: general secondary schools, schools specializing in a certain subject, lyceums and so on. Tuition in most of them is free of charge, but some new types of schools are fee-paying. There have appeared many private schools in Russia. Parents pay for these schools and fees are rather high.
The term of study in a secondary school is 11 years and consists of primary, middle and upper stages. The school year extends from September 1 to the end of May and is divided into four terms. Study program in schools is fixed but in the nearest future schoolchildren or their parents will have a choice of study subjects.
Children are accepted to the first grade at the age of 6 or 7, depending on individual development of each child. Students of elementary classes are normally separated from other classes within their own floor of a school building. They are taught by a single teacher through all four elementary grades except for physical training and foreign languages.
At the middle stage of a secondary school the students learn the basic laws of nature and society at the lessons of history, algebra, literature, physics and many others. After 9th grade students have to sit for examinations. Also they have a choice between entering the 10th grade of a secondary school and enrolling in a specialized secondary or vocational school to get some profession.
Russia is on the stage of bringing new technologies in education. In almost every school there are new models of computers and almost every school has a direct connect to the Internet. The Internet gives an opportunity for remote education with the help of e-mail, special forums and teleconferences.
The Ministry of Education launched the Unified State Examination (USE) program. The set of standardized tests for high school graduates, issued uniformly throughout the country and it has replaced entrance exams to state universities. Thus, the reformers reasoned, the USE will empower talented graduates from remote locations to compete for admissions at the universities of their choice.
Higher education in Russia is undergoing great changes. Russia is in the process of migrating from its traditional education model to a modernized degree structure in a line with Bologna Process model. Russia co-signed the Bologna Declaration in 2003. Russia enacted a law that replaces the traditional five-year model of education with a two-tiered approach: a four-year Bachelor’s degree followed by a two-year Master's degree.
to guarantee – гарантировать
to incorporate – включать
pre-school – дошкольный
crèche - ясли
to regulate – регулировать
generation – поколение
lyceum – лицей
tuition – обучение
to be free of charge – быть бесплатным
fee – плата (за обучение)
grade – класс
compulsory – обязательный
primary – начальный
stage – ступень
to extend – продолжаться, распространяться
to separate – разделять
term – четверть, условие
choice – выбор
elementary – начальный
vocational – профессиональный
to enroll – зачислять
technology – техника, технология
a connect to the Internet – связь с Интернетом
remote education – дистанционное обучение
physical training – физкультура
to launch – запускать, начинать
Unified State Examination – ЕГЭ
to enact the law – учредить закон
location - местонахождение
graduate – выпускник
high school – средняя школа
entrance exam – вступительный экзамен
to undergo great changes – претерпевать большие изменения
to replace – заменять
two-tiered approach – двухрядный подход
Bachelor’s degree – степень бакалавра
Master’s degree – степень магистра
Exercise 1. Find the following phrases in the text.
- иметь право на ________
- высшее образование ________
- подготовить к жизни и работе _________
- различные типы школ ________
- учебная программа ________
- срок обучения ________
- профессиональная школа ________
- в ближайшем будущем ________
- основные законы природы и общества ________
- внести новые технологии в образование ________
- набор стандартных тестов ________
- претерпевать большие изменения ________
Exercise 2. Read the statements and say whether they are true or false.
1. The public educational system in Russia incorporates only specialized secondary and higher education.
2. Pre-school education isn't compulsory in Russia.
3. The secondary school prepares the younger generation for life and work in modern production.
4. The term of study in a secondary school is 12 years and consists of primary, middle and upper stages.
5. After the 9th grade the students have a choice between entering the 10th grade of a secondary school and enrolling in a specialized secondary or vocational school.
6. The Unified State Examination is issued only for the big cities of the country.
7. After the graduation from the university young people get a diploma of higher education.