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Word order. The structure of sentences. Conjunctions

A sentence is a group of words expressing a complete thought. It begins with a capital letter and ends with a period, question mark or exclamation point to show the type of message it communicates: declarative, interrogative and exclamatory.

Each sentence must be complete and grammatically correct. A complete sentence usually has a subject and a predicate. Other words that add to the meaning and make it more definite are objects and modifiers.

We usually put adverbs at the end of the sentence in the following order: of manner, place and time,but for travel verbs, that are followed by adverbs of place, then manner and time.

How? Where? When?

Example: She danced magnificently at the ballet last Monday.

Where? How? When?

I went to Portugalby carthree years ago.

Task 1Correct the word order in these sentences.

1. We worked at school hard all day.___________________________________________________

2. She goes by bus to college. _______________________________________________________

3. Who did you meet last night at the party? ____________________________________________

4. She rested last summer at a camp site in the USA._______________________________________

5. Our team played in the match brilliantly on Friday._____________________________________

6. I travelled by coach at the weekend to London._________________________________________

Task 2Write about travelling to some place and meeting interesting people there. Observe the right order of adverbs giving details about manner, time and place.( about 40-50 words)

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Adjectives in English follow the strict order: adjectives giving opinion, speaking about shape, age, colour, origin and material.Though you need not give long lists of adjectives: it sounds very awkward.

Example: She got a nice slim little brownish Irish setter for her birthday.

Task 3 Correct the word order in these sentences:

1.She found a beautiful glass old statue._______________________________________________

2.I wear a Scottish woolen short lovely kilt.______________________________________________

3.They go to school in a yellow long bus.________________________________________________

4.I dream of visiting this wooden old hut at the edge of the forest._____________________________

5.Have you seen that American fantastic new film?________________________________________

6.He used to hum a folk famous Russian song.____________________________________________

 

The structure of sentences may be

a) Simple – with one complete thought.

b) Compound – with two or three independent clauses that may exist as independent clauses. They are joined by conjunctions or separated by punctuation.

c) Complex – with one independent clause and two or more dependent/ subordinate clauses, which do not express a complete thought and cannot stand alone.

d) Compound-complex – with a number of independent and dependent/ subordinate clauses.

Task 4Define the structure of the sentence:

1. As Vikings didn’t settle in Canada, they probably stayed less than 10 years, though they traded with Native Americans for much longer.

2. The Vikings lived in a part of a northern Europe called Scandinavia.

3. Some Vikings sailed west, and they settled the islands of Iceland and Greenland.

4. The Vikings were gifted craftsmen; they built the best ships in Europe, because they had to travel far in search of good s like silk, glass and silver.

Conjunctions

Coordinate Correlative Subordinate Relative pronouns Conjunctive adverbs
And Either, or After Who Also
But Neither, nor Although Which Besides
Or Not only As That However
Nor But also As if What Moreover
For Both, and As long as   Nevertheless
Yet Whether, or Because   Therefore
  As, so Before   Thus
    If   Still
    In order that    
    Provided that    
    Since    
    So    
    Though    
    Till(until, unless)    
    When    
    Where    
    while    

Task 5Shorten the texts up to 3-4 sentences (30-40words)

Mrs White has some students at her home for lessons. There are six of them in all, four young men and two girls. Some of them are hard working and clever; others are clever but don’t do much work. One is slim and beautiful; and one is quiet and pretty. One is handsome and well-dressed, and can talk about music and literature; one is not handsome or clever but he can tell funny stories. They are all friends._______________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________My friend Jane lives out of town in Abramtsevo. It is one of the most beautiful places near Moscow. It is situated to the north of Moscow on the bank of the narrow river Vorya. The air is fresh and cool there. Abramtsevo is not only famous for its beauty but also for its museums. The place belonged to Savva Mamontov, Russian merchant, connoisseur of arts. He had a lot of friends among talented Russian painters, writers and singers. He often invited them to his place. There they worked and discussed art._______________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


 

Possible variants:

 

Mrs White has six students at her home for lessons. Among the four young men there are hard working and clever, handsome and well-dressed, lazy and talkative. The girls are slim and beautiful, quiet and pretty. They are all friends.

 

My friend Jane lives in Abramtsevo, which is situated near Moscow on the river Vorya. Abramtsevo is famous both for its beauty and museums. It belonged to the Russian merchant Savva Mamontov, who often invited his talented friends to work and discuss art.


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