Pavlodar region ( kaz. Pavlodar bald ) - is located on the bank of the Irtysh , the largest river in Kazakhstan. Founded in January 1938 . The regional center - the city of Pavlodar.
The region is located in the northeast of the Republic of Kazakhstan and is bordered to the north - Omsk , north- east - Novosibirsk , in the east - the Altai Territory of the Russian Federation , in the south - the East Kazakhstan and Karaganda region , on the west by the Akmola and North Kazakhstan region of the Republic of Kazakhstan
2) When was Koryakovsky founded?
Pavlodar was founded in 1720 as an outpost on the Irtysh Koryakovsky line Russian military fortifications . The name given to the outpost while it is 20 km away Koryakovsky salt lake .
On this lake were salt pans Russian merchant from Tara N. Koryakova by the name of that lake and got the name .
In 1838, an outpost transformed into a village Koryakovsky . At the end of 1860 local merchants petitioned to transform the village into a city with a unique name in honor of Pavlodar just born the youngest son of Emperor Alexander II Paul. This request was granted and in 1861 appeared Pavlodar .
3) What industries are there in Pavlodar?
In this city in the Soviet era began to actively develop chemical and heavy industry . He was unlucky not had time to deploy large-scale housing construction ( as befits the industrial center ) , came the collapse of the Union and the heavy perestroika years . He remained chetyrehetazhek city . Decayed economic ties . Let us work closed a large part of the urban population Tractor Plant . At the beginning of its construction it was assumed that the plant will produce harvesters , but eventually for 15 years, he produced industrial refrigerators . Then, it was converted into a production of tractors , which were not very good quality and are always in demand in Soviet agriculture . Under the new conditions of Kazakhstan market such a plant was not needed . Convert it quite difficult, because it is possible only if it goes into private ownership.
Pavlodar now produces about 80% of Kazakh coal . There have been explored so far untapped deposits of brown coal . Ekibastuz deposit extends up to the Irtysh. Many coal - in place of Pavlodar was once the beach. In Pavlodar region is the largest salt mine . Salt processed located on the border with the Republic of four Russian chemical plant . While in Kazakhstan on the basis of these salt stocks , too, can develop good chemical industry .
Extensive experience in the processing of aluminum has built in 1967. The Pavlodar aluminum plant . It is specially built for Turgai bauxite , they were designed plant technology . And when they ran out and went trudnoobogaschaemye bauxite - the plant is not able to process them . Bauxite began to carry in Pavlodar from Guinea-Bissau through Novorossiysk . Then Novorossiysk built a factory for the Guinean bauxite , and Pavlodar was left without raw materials. But technology has modernized the plant , and now he can again be processed Turgai bauxite . Aluminum plant enough for a hundred years . Because electricity is very cheap , then on the basis of available processing factory base a complete cycle . True , it may worsen the environmental situation : in the air will be emitted volatile fluorides . The factory was moved to thirty kilometers from the city . But this measure is not enough, it will all depend on how it will work, as will be observed sanitary standards .
4) When did Pavlodar get this name?
In the first half of the 20th century with the construction of the railway Kulunda -Pavlodar (1923) and the development of navigation on the Irtysh , the economy is growing rapidly .
The region was formed January 15, 1938 decree of the Central Committee of the WKB ( b) of the 9 regions of the East Kazastanskoy and one district of Karaganda oblastey.Pavlodar , which became the regional center in 1938, was at the crossroads of the navigable river Irtysh and the railway, was a reliable connection with Ekibastuz, Ural , Siberia . This was the further development of the economy of the city and the region. At the site of small workshops have grown large industrial enterprises . Pavlodar region during the Great Patriotic War made unbearable contribute assistance to the front . Since 1956 Pavlodar became one of the centers of development of virgin and fallow lands . As a result of lifting the virgin land area sown area increased tenfold. Coal production and development of virgin lands gave a powerful impetus to the development of the productive forces of Pavlodar region . C 1949 to 1962 the territory south of the Pavlodar region , was part of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site .
Favorable economic and geographical location, rich resources , the availability of transport routes , Irtysh-Karaganda canal contributed to the fact that in 1957 was created Pavlodar- Ekibastuz territorial- industrial complex, consisting of Pavlodar , Ekibastuz , Aksu ( Ermak ) . On the basis of cheap coal Ekibastuz power base created and developed new industries : ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, machinery, aluminum , oil refining and chemical industries.
5) What places of interest can you visit in Pavlodar?
CSR is the most banal , cinemas and clubs ..., You can go to City Garden , Museum.
6) Why is Pavlodar called multinational city?
Modern Pavlodar traces its history to 1720 , when a number of military forts and outposts Russia appeared on the Irtysh outpost Koryakovsky , so named because it was built next to the warehouses of salt produced in the Koryakovsky lake. It was located in the area around the current city rescue station and the plant "October". According to surviving documents , the outpost was in the form of a square 50 x 50 meters, was surrounded by a log palisade high , the corners had bastions with artillery batteries . Located in the interior of the barracks outside - stables and a sauna. The entire garrison outpost had 48 people . 25 years later outpost several expanded its borders , the garrison was increased , additional buildings for the Cossacks , are appointed for salt production . Even after two decades, permission was granted to retired soldiers and dragoons to settle on free space. It also allowed to settle contractors and officials of the salt department. In the Pavlodar historical museum has a curious document - a plan Koryakovsky outpost in 1765 . In addition to the barracks , offices , officers' quarters and the powder magazine inside the fortifications outside the designated stables, barns for baggage , salt barn , two Refreshment shops . On the outskirts of the village next to the peculiar customs - tavern . On the bank of the Irtysh - bath. The famous traveler P. Palpas left us a description of the outpost , referring to 1770 , "This outpost of all the other along the Irtysh crowded and there is the best structure. Commissioner salt department and contractor supplies salt generously live here in houses built an extensive settlement , divided " on the street . " during the second half of the 18th century, the strengthening of Irtysh lost its strategic military importance . Castles and outposts became conventional villages and hamlets , which were women and children. Koryakovsky outpost became a center of salt production in Siberia. in 1838, he was transformed into a village Koryakovsky and from Yamysheva here were translated Cossack school ( the old-timers remember it Pavlodar - building on the street. Lenin, the former school N1) and the regimental hospital . by this time, a village grows from the original outpost in the direction of the river station . The favorable position of the village , located on the shore of a large navigable rivers, proximity to the districts , where a development lead, copper , silver, crosshairs trade routes with nomads - all these circumstances were very beneficial for the economic development of the village . That's merchant class , more to increase the number , since the mid -19th century began to insist Feed Cossack village that would give them the right to feel is not the guests, but the hosts. Finally, April 4, 1861 Koryakovka receives the status of " a provincial town with the name thereof Pavlodar, in honor of the newborn Grand Duke Paul ." A little later the city became the county center
7) What is the climate of Pavlodar like?
The climate is temperate continental. Prolonged severe winter with stable snow cover and hot summers with little rainfall . The average January temperature - 15.8 degrees below zero , and in July - 21.5 degrees Celsius. The average annual rainfall - 303 mm.
The average annual temperature - 3,3 ° C
Relative humidity - 69 %
Average wind speed - 3.1 m / s
8) What educational establishments of Pavlodar can you name?
Pavlodar State University . S.Toraygyrov, Innovative University of Eurasia , Pavlodar State Pedagogical Institute , College of Music , lyceums, itd .
9) How do the citizens of Pavlodar spend their leisure time?