Text “Types of petroleum engineers”.




Petroleum engineers divide themselves into several types: reservoir engineers, drilling engineers, production engineers. Reservoir engineers work to optimize production of oil and gas via proper well placement, production rates, and enhanced oil recovery techniques. Drilling engineers manage the technical aspects of drilling exploratory, production and injection wells. Production engineers, including subsurface engineers, manage the interface between the reservoir and the well, including perforations, sand control, downhole flow control, and downhole monitoring equipment; evaluate artificial lift methods; and also select surface equipment that separates the produced fluids (oil, natural gas, and water).

The working tools of the reservoir engineer are subsurface geology, applied mathematics, and the basic laws of physics and chemistry governing the behavior of liquid and vapor phases of crude oil, natural gas, and water in reservoir rock. Reservoir engineers also play a central role in field development planning, recommending appropriate and cost effective reservoir depletion schemes such as waterflooding or gas injection to maximize hydrocarbon recovery. Due to legislative changes in many hydrocarbon producing countries, they are also involved in the design and implementation of carbon sequestration projects in order to minimize the emission of greenhouse gases.

Drilling engineers design and implement procedures to drill wells as safely and economically as possible. They work closely with the drilling contractor, service contractors, and compliance personnel, as well as with geologists and other technical specialists. The drilling engineer has the responsibility for ensuring that costs are minimized while getting information to evaluate the formations penetrated, protecting the health and safety of workers and other personnel, and protecting the environment. Drilling engineers are in charge of the process of planning and drilling the wells. Drilling engineers are often degreed as petroleum engineers, although they may come from other technical disciplines and subsequently be trained by an oil and gas company. They also may have practical experience as a rig hand or mud logger or mud engineer.

Production engineers design and select equipment to extract and treat oil and gas well fluids. They are often degreed as petroleum engineers. The production engineer, upon consultation with the petrophysical and reservoir engineers, plans the completion procedure for the well. This involves a choice of setting a liner across the formation or perforating a casing that has been extended and cemented across the reservoir, selecting appropriate pumping techniques, and choosing the surface collection, dehydration, and storage facilities.

Слова к тексту.

reservoir engineer – инженер-промысловик

drilling engineer – инженер-буровик

production engineer – инженер-эксплуатационник

well bore – буровая скважина

placement – размещение, расположение

injection – нагнетание, закачка

subsurface engineer – инженер по заканчиванию скважин

down hole – забой скважины

flow – поток, струя, течение

drainage – дренирование, осушение

vapor – пар, испаряться

appropriate – предназначать, подходящий

waterflooding – заводнение

involve – вовлекать, затрагивать, включать в себя

implementation – внедрение, осуществление

sequestration - конфискация, удаление

compliance personnel – персонал вневедомственного контроля

ensuring – обеспечивать, гарантировать

penetrate – проходить, углубляться, проникать

sought reserves – найденные залежи

access – иметь доступ, достигать

acquiring – приобретать, получать

lease – участок, отвод

equipment – оборудование

completion – завершение, заканчивание

casing – обсадная труба (колонна), крепление обсадными трубами

dehydration – дегидратация, обезвоживание

facilities – средства, оборудование, устройства

drilling exploratory – разведочно-эксплуатационное бурение

drilling contractor – буровой подрядчик

behavior – работа, поведение, характер

mud engineer – инженер по буровым растворам

rig hand – работник буровой установки

mud logger – работник буровой бригады, ответственный за контроль бурового раствора

depletion plan – проект разработки

software engineer – программист

Упр. 1. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний:

инженер-нефтяник, добыча нефти и газа, скважина, бурение, резервуар, выбирать, оборудование, инструмент, сырая нефть, коллекторная порода, углерод, безопасность, ответственность, окружающая среда, достигать, глубина, инженер по буровым растворам, заводнение, выбор, образование, хранение, обезвоживание, внедрение, характер, средство, поток, удаление.

Упр. 2. Прочитайте и переведите следующие словосочетания:

oil recovery techniques

downhole flow control

artificial lift methods

high economic recovery

field development

legislative changes

drilling contractor

geological survey

practical experience

pumping techniques

Упр. 3. Найдите в правой колонке русские эквиваленты слов и словосочетаний из левой колонки.

 


1. production engineer

2. drilling exploratory

3. equipment

4. applied mathematic

5. behavior of liquid

6. waterflooding

7. service contractor

8. mud engineer

9. formation

10. storage

1. характер движения жидкости

2. прикладная математика

3. хранилище

4. инженер по буровым растворам

5. обслуживающий подрядчик

6. разведочно-эксплуатационное бурение

7. образование

8. заводнение

9. оборудование

10. инженер эксплуатационник


Упр. 4. Найдите в правой колонке английские эквиваленты слов и словосочетаний из левой колонки.

 


1. получать

2. обезвоживание

3. рабочий буровой бригады

4. расположение скважины

5. проблемы осушения

6. бурить скважину

7. сверление

8. оценивать

9. ответственность

10. извлечение углеводорода

1. well placement

2. perforation

3. evaluate

4. drainage problems

5. obtain

6. hydrocarbon recovery

7. drill well

8. responsibility

9. mud logger

10. dehydration


Упр. 5. Прочитайте следующие предложения. Найдите в каждом из них группу «подлежащие – сказуемое», определите время и залог сказуемого. Составьте все типы вопросов к предложениям.

1. Petroleum engineers divide themselves into several types.

2. Historically, the chemical engineer has been primarily concerned with process engineering.

3. Considerations must be given to the various functions.

4. Modern chemical engineers are becoming more heavily involved in the development of new technologies.

5. Drilling engineers are in charge of the process of planning and drilling the wells.

6. Subsurface Engineer will monitor and adjust the equipment to ensure the well.

7. They often are degreed as petroleum engineers, although they may come from other technical disciplines.

8. Subsurface engineers must design a successful well completion system by selecting equipment that is adequate for both downhole environments and applications.

Упр. 6. Выразите согласие или несогласие со следующими высказываниями. Подтвердите свою точку зрения фактами из текста, используя следующие разговорные формулы: I don’t think so; it’s true; it’s not right; I can’t agree with you; you are wrong; on the one hand; on the other hand; according to the text.

1. Production engineers design and select equipment to extract and treat oil and gas well fluids.

2. Engineering applications are also computer-intensive; they are generally classified as either simulation or process types.

3. They also may have practical experience as a rig hand or mud logger or mud engineer.

4. Drilling engineers are in charge of the process of planning and drilling the wells.

5. Another factor in selection of specific completion equipment is the production rates of the well.

6. They work closely with the drilling contractor, service contractors, and compliance personnel, as well as with geologists and other technical specialists.

7. Environmental engineers also design municipal water supply and industrial wastewater treatment systems.

8. Drilling engineers design and implement procedures to drill wells as safely and economically as possible.

Упр. 7. Переведите предложения на английский язык:

1. Инженеры-буровики тесно работают с буровыми подрядчиками, с индивидуальными подрядчиками, с персоналом ведомственного контроля, а также с геологами и другими техническими специалистами.

2. Инженеры-промысловики также играют основную роль в планировании разработки месторождения.

3. Инженеры-буровики отвечают за процессы планирования и бурения скважин.

4. Инженеры-эксплуатационники планируют процедуру заканчивания скважины.

5. Инженеры-буровики управляют техническими аспектами бурения разведочных, добывающих и нагнетательных скважин.

6. Инженеры-эксплуатационники проектируют и подбирают оборудование, чтобы извлекать и очищать жидкости нефтяных и газовых скважин.

7. Кроме того, буровики ведут разведку более глубоких залежей.

8. Инженер-промысловик должен широко использовать в своей практике достижения естественных наук, математики, экспериментальной физики и химии.

9. Инженер-эксплуатационник отвечает за отладку и техническое обслуживание машин, автоматов, технологических линий, контроль за режимом их работы.

10. Инженеры-нефтяники занимаются поиском месторождений нефти и газа, их разработкой и эксплуатацией, на них также возложена обязанность по восстановлению территории после завершения буровых работ.

Упр. 8. Письменно переведите следующие предложения на русский язык, пользуясь словарем:

1. Subsurface engineers (also known as Completion engineers) are a subset within petroleum engineering and typically work closely with drilling engineers.

2. The job of a subsurface engineer is to effectively select equipment that will best suit the subsurface environment in order to best produce the hydrocarbon reserves.

3. Once the hardware has been selected, a subsurface engineer will monitor and adjust the equipment to ensure the well and reservoir produces under ideal circumstances.

4. Subsurface engineers must design a successful well completion system by selecting equipment that is adequate for both downhole environments and applications.

5. In general, a chemical engineer is one who applies and uses principles of chemical engineering in any of various practical applications; primarily with respect to the study of the design, manufacture, and operation of plant and machinery in industrial chemical and related processes.

6. Chemical engineers are now engaged in the development and production of a diverse range of products, as well as in commodity and specialty chemicals.

7. The geological engineer, using the petrophysical data, the seismic surveys conducted during the exploration operations, and an analysis of the regional and environmental geology, develops inferences concerning the lateral continuity and extent of the reservoir.

8. Environmental engineers conduct hazardous-waste management studies to evaluate the significance of such hazards, advice on treatment and containment, and develop regulations to prevent mishaps.

9. Environmental engineers also design municipal water supply and industrial wastewater treatment systems as well as address local and worldwide environmental issues such as the effects of acid rain, global warming, ozone depletion, water pollution and air pollution from automobile exhausts and industrial sources.

10. Environmental "civil" engineers focus on hydrology, water resources management, bioremediation, and water treatment plant design.

Упр. 9. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. What types do petroleum engineers divide themselves?

2. What do reservoir engineers do?

3. What are the working tools of the reservoir engineers?

4. How do the drilling engineers work?

5. Are drilling engineers in charge of the process of planning and drilling the wells?

6. What does the production engineer manage?

7. Who plans the completion procedure for the well?

8. How are the production engineers often degreed?

9. Who do the drilling engineers closely work with?

10. What practical experience may they also have?

Упр. 10. Расскажите, что нового вы узнали из текста. Используйте следующие разговорные формулы:

I’d like to say a few words about; it’s important to say that; it should be noted that; as a matter of fact; broadly speaking; as far as I know; to my mind; in my opinion; according to the text; I can add; the subject of the text is; I’d like to say that; it should be pointed; as is known; the text is about; the text deals with; the content of the text.

 

 

Урок 4.

Тема: Нефть: образование и состав.

 

 

Задание. Прочитайте текст и постарайтесь понять его содержание, пользуясь списком новых слов и словосочетаний. Выполните следующие за ним упражнения.

 

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