13.The theory of parts of speech and their interaction.
The position of parts of speech in the system of the language. The criteria of classifying the lexicon into parts of speech. The cognitive-discursive approach to parts of speech. The system of parts of speech in English. Notional and functional words. The borderline between notional and functional words. The field (prototypical) structure of parts of speech. Interaction between parts of speech. Syntactic transposition as a means of parts-of-speech interaction in English. The functions of transposition.
14.The English noun and its grammatical categories.
The general characteristic of the noun and its position in the system of parts of speech. Gender distinctions in the English nouns. The grammatical category of number in the English noun. The grammatical category of case in the English noun.
15.The English verb. Subclasses of verb in English.
The position of the verb in the system of parts of speech. The verb as the semantic and the syntactic centre of the sentence. The three criteria for the classification of verbs into subclasses: formal, functional and semantic. The classification of verbs on the bases of the these criteria.
16.The grammatical category of tense.
The debatable points in the study of this category. The problem of the future tense in English. The analyses of the opposition: present :: past :: future. The semantic potential of the tense-forms in English.
17.The grammatical category of aspect.
The definition of the category of aspect. The semantic basis of the category of aspect in English. The analysis of the opposition ‘Common :: Continuous’ aspects. Cases of neutralization and transposition. The text-forming function of the Continuous Aspect in the text.
18.The grammatical category of time-correlation.
The arguments in favour of treating the opposition ‘Perfect :: Non-Perfect’ as a separate grammatical category. The paradigmatic and syntagmatic meanings of the perfect forms. Cases of neutralization and transposition in the sphere of time-correlation category. The functions of perfect forms in the text.
19.The grammatical category of mood.
The main problems which arise in the study of the category of mood in English. Mood and modality. The system of moods in English.
20.The grammatical category of voice.
The specificity of the category of voice as compared to the other verbal categories. The analyses of the opposition ‘Active :: Passive’. The scope of the passive constructions in English as compared to Russian. The factors that determine the use of passive constructions in English.
21.The simple sentence and its essential features.
The problem of the sentence definition and its level belonging. The main categories of the sentence: a) predicativity: its role in the sentence; types of predication: primary vs. secondary; explicit vs. implicit predication; b) modality: its heterogeneous nature; the two types of modality; the culture- and gender-sensitive character of modality; c) negation and its types: complete vs. partial; grammatical vs. lexical; explicit vs. implicit; direct vs. transferred negation; negation and the communicative type of the sentence; the specific features of negation in English.
22.The structural aspect of the sentence.
Classification of sentences according to their structure. The notions of valency, structural minimum and the elementary sentence. The syntactic processes of extending and compressing the elementary sentence.
23.The semantic aspect of the sentence.
The notion of the semantic, or the deep structure of the sentence. The problem of semantic modelling in syntax. The semantic types of sentences. The relations between the formal (surface) and the semantic (deep) structures of the sentence.
24.The communicative aspect of the sentence and its actual division.
Classification of sentences according to the purpose of communication The problem of exclamatory sentences. Transposition on the level of communicative types of sentences. The actual division of the sentence. The central notions of the actual division: the theme and the rheme. Dirhemic and monorhemic utterances. Means of expressing the components of actual division. The peculiarities of actual division in different communicative types of sentences. The text forming function of actual division.
25.Phonetics as a branch of linguistics. The phoneme theory.
Phonetics as a branch of linguistics, its own branches. The connection of Phonetics with Grammar, Lexicology and Stylistics. The sound matter of the language and its components. Method of direct observation and commutation.
The functional aspect of the sound. The definition of the phoneme. The material, the abstractional, the generalized and the functional aspects of the phoneme – three functions of the phoneme. The principle and the subsidiary variants of the phoneme.
The conception of the phoneme. The 1st and the 2nd groups of phonological conceptions. The status of the sound in the neutral position. Patterns of phonemic distribution and discovery of phonemes.
26.The classification of English vowels.
The classification of speech sounds. The acoustic and the auditory aspect of speech sounds.
The classification of English vowels – 5 types. Rules of reading vowels in English. Accommodation. Modification of vowels in connected speech.
Moot points in vowels: the problem of diphthongs, the problem of the neutral sound, the problem of the vowel length.
27.The classification of English consonants.
The classification of speech sounds. The acoustic and the auditory aspect of speech sounds. The classification of English consonants – 4 types.
Rules of reading consonants in English. Assimilation. Different features of consonants affected by assimilation. Degrees of assimilation Directions of assimilation.
Moot points in consonants – the problem of [W] sound. The number of affricates in English.
The definition of intonation. Intonation and its components. The role of intonation in speech. Intonation-group division. Parts of intonation pattern. The Descending, the Ascending and the Level types of Pre-Nuclear. Types of Nuclear. Methods of indicating intonation on the staves and in the line of text.
Sentence-stress. Stressed and unstressed words in sentence-stress. The distinctive function of sentence-stress. Mistakes of Russian learners in sentence-stress.
Rhythm. Tempo. Intonation of statements, special questions, general questions, imperatives, exclamations, direct address, parentheses, author’s words, disjunctive questions, compound and complex sentences. O’Connor’s system of English intonation. Tone Groups 1-9.
Stylistic use of intonation. Intonation of formal style. Intonation of scientific style. Intonation of declamatory style. Intonation of publicistic style. Intonation of conversational style. Intonation of a fairy-tale. Examples of phonostylistic analyses. Stylistic modifications of sounds.
30. The classification of functional styles. Publicistic and newspaper style.
The definition, the features common for all styles. The general classification.
Formal functional styles: scientific, business (official), publicistic, poetic. The general characterization, the linguistic features.
Informal styles: the characteristic features, the specific language material. The peculiarities of literary::familiar colloquial.
Publicistic style and the features of its substyles. Newspaper style and the features of its substyles.
31.Scientific and business style. The language of literature.
Scientific style, its substyles, the characteristic features, the specific language material.
Business style, its substyles, the characteristic features, the specific language material.
The problem of belles-lettres style. The distinctive features of the language of literature.
32.The main division of expressive means. Lexical means of expressiveness.
The difference between stylistic devices and expressive means. The classification of expressive means.
Lexical means of expressiveness and the classification of tropes. The devices included into each group: definitions, examples.
33. Metaphoric group. The structure and the semantics of an image.
The tropes included into metaphoric group: their definitions, examples. Different approaches to the study of metaphor. The semantic structure of an image. The functions of an image. Genuine: trite images. Extended images.
34. Syntactical expressive means.
The definition of syntactical expressive means, their classification. The general classification of each group of syntactical expressive means, the devices comprising it: their definitions, functions, examples.
35. Phonetical expressive means.
Euphony: the definition, means of creating.
Onomotopoeia – direct and indirect, the theory of sound symbolism.
The patterns of sound repetition. Alliteration: definition, usage, functions. Assonance. Consonance. Paronomasia.
Rhythm: the definition, the rhythm of poetry and the rhythm of prose. Meter.
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