Ex. 1Translate into Russian
Ex. 3. Match the following definitions with the words and expressions from exercise 2:
1. a confession, as of a crime, mistake, etc; an acknowledgment of the truth or validity of something Admission
2. a lawyer qualified to present cases in court Barrister
3. a person against whom an action or claim is brought in a court of law Defendant
4. A severe, formal, or official rebuke or censure Reprimand
5. a type of lawyer in Britain who gives legal advice, prepares the necessary documents when property is bought or sold, and defends people, especially in the lower courts of law Solicitor
6. advertising material presented under the guise of editorial material Advertorial
7. an additional service or advantage given with a job besides wages A fringe benefit (fringe benefits )
8. at issue, in jeopardy At stake
9. eagerness to do something, especially to achieve a particular religious or political aim Zeal
10. having no special conditions or limits on an agreement, relationship etc With no strings attached
11. Illegal use of one's official position or powers to obtain property, funds, or patronage Extortion
12. leave of absence from work through illness On sick leave
13. Likely or expected to happen Prospective
14. noninterference in the affairs of others Laissez faire
15. not allowed by laws or rules, or strongly disapproved of by society Illicit
16. of broad scope or content; including all or much Comprehensive
17. often supporting or opposing a particular person or thing in an unfair way by allowing personal opinions to influence your judgment Bias
18. seeming to be everywhere - sometimes used humorously Ubiquitous
19. something that encourages you to work harder, start a new activity etc Incentive for sth
20. something that you are given free, usually by a company Freebie
21. the act of dispersing, diffusing or spreading something (Information) dissemination
22. the middle course between extremes The golden mean
23. the practice of paying someone for a news story and especially for granting an interview Checkbook journalism
24. the profit or the amount of money that a business makes or loses Bottom-line
25. to behave according to the usual standards of behaviour which are expected by a group or society Conform to sth
26. to deliberately listen secretly to other people's conversations To eavesdrop
27. to do or say something that people feel is familiar or true Strike a chord
28. To feel or express grief or sorrow Mourn
29. to judge something only on what you see when you look at it rather than on what you know from other people or things Judge sth on its merits
30. to let someone else have your position, power, or rights, especially unwillingly Relinquish
31. to pay a bill To foot the bill
32. to spend time thinking carefully and seriously about a problem, a difficult question, or something that has happened Ponder
33. to suddenly and quickly decrease in value or amount To plummet
Ex. 3 Match the following words and collocations with their synonyms from exercise 2:
1. accused, offender defendant
2. at risk; in question at stake
3. blackmail; cheating, compulsion extortion
4. blame, censure, rebuke, reproach reprimand
5. chauvinist, dogmatist, extremist, fanatic bigot
6. distribution, dissipation dissemination
7. enthusiasm, passion, zest, eagerness zeal
8. excused absence sick leave
9. fake, counterfeit, deceptive fraudulent
10. future, potential, possible prospective
11. gift, giveaway freebie
12. grieve for, miss, lament mourn
13. illegal, unlawful illicit
14. income and loss bottom line
15. indicter, accuser prosecutor
16. individualism, noninterference, nonintervention, nonrestriction (Laissez faire)
17. inducement, motivator incentive for
18. listen in, bug, overhear eavesdrop
19. no ifs ands or buts with no strings attached
20. omnipresent, here and there ubiquitous
21. partiality, prejudice bias
22. perk, perquisite fringe benefits
23. plunge plummet
24. resign, give up, quit relinquish
25. the happy medium (the golden mean)
26. think about, consider, study, reflect on ponder
Ex. 4 Complete the sentences using the list of vocabulary units in exercise 2, some words can be used more than once:
1. Advertorials can also be printed and presented as an entire newspaper section, inserted the same way within a newspaper as store fliers, comics sections, and other non-editorial content.
2. Corrupt leaders were chosen in a fraudulent election.
3. Fringe benefits include a company car and free health insurance.
4. He continued to ponder the problem as he walked home.
5. He has been charged with extortion and abusing his position.
6. He has relinquished his claim to the throne.
7. He was arrested for selling illicit copies of the software.
8. Her speech struck a sympathetic chord among business leaders.
9. His boss gave him a severe reprimand for being late.
10. Hope of promotion and bonus payments served as an incentive to hard work.
11. How will the rise in interest rates affect our bottom line?
12. Hundreds of people gathered to mourn the slain president.
13. In philosophy, especially that of Aristotle, the goldenmean is the desirable middle between two extremes, one of excess and the other of deficiency.
14. In relation to minor offenses or a first time offense you will receive a reprimand.
15. The company's marketing rep was giving out pens and mugs - the usual freebies.
16. In their zeal to catch drug dealers, police have ignored citizens' basic civil rights.
17. It's clear that the company has a bias against women and minorities.
18. Joseph does not conform to the stereotype of a policeman.
19. Mark is not in the office today. He broke his leg yesterday, so he's on sick leave.
20. My solicitor will call on your father to arrange business matters, and you shall be as happy as wealth and liberty can make you. An Unsocial Socialist by George Bernard Shaw
21. No one wants to relinquish power once they have it.
22. One of the organization's aims is the dissemination information about the disease.
23. Profits plummeted from £49 million to £11 million.
24. Since prosecutors are backed by the power of the state, they are usually subject to special professional responsibility rules in addition to those binding all lawyers.
25. The child eavesdropped on her parents' discussion.
26. The committee say they will judge each applicant on his or her own merits.
27. The company paid for the minister to fly out to Australia on a freebie.
28. The jury believed that the defendant was guilty.
29. The donation has no strings attached, so the charity can use the money for whatever purpose it chooses.
30. The phrase "chequebook journalism" is often used pejoratively, with the suggestion being that stories obtained by paying people are not so worthy as those obtained by traditional investigations.
31. The public prosecutor modified the charges against him.
32. The Swedes are not alone in finding their language under pressure from the ubiquitous spread of English.
There are many ways to lead and every leader has his or her own style. Some of the more common styles include autocratic, bureaucratic, democratic, and laissez-faire.
34. There is little incentive for people to leave their cars at home when public transport remains so expensive.
35. There is nothing more dangerous than the conscience of a bigot. George Bernard Shaw
36. They have to win the contract - thousands of jobs are at stake.
37. We ended up having to foot the bill for a new roof because our insurance didn't cover storm damage.
38. We've had three sets of prospective buyers looking round the house.
Ex. 7 In chapter 16 the author uses the expression “comprehensive watchdog”. Explain the difference in the usage of the words “comprehensive” and “comprehensible” and then fill in the gaps with the suitable option:
1. We offer you a comprehensive training in all aspects of the business.
2. Her speech was slurred and barely comprehensible.
3. Is this list comprehensive or are there some names missing?
4. He has written a fully comprehensive guide to Rome.
5. He spoke abruptly, in barely comprehensible Arabic.
6. Her writing is barely comprehensible to me.
7. This book seems to make the subject of longitude comprehensible to most laymen.
8. The curator of the museum was asked to draft a comprehensive listing of all the paintings generally attributed to the Dutch artist Rembrandt.
9. Natalie's every move was photographed, a documentation of a happy childhood as comprehensive as it was false. John Gregory Dunne, New York Review of Books, 15 Jan. 2004
10. The article is written in clear, comprehensible English.
11. Astor in his comprehensive project, might throw light upon portions of our country quite out of the track of ordinary travel, and as yet but little known. Astoria or Anecdotes of an enterprise beyond the Rocky Mountains by Washington Irving.
Ex. 8 In chapter 16 the author uses the expression “prospective deals”. Explain the difference in the usage of the words “prospective” and “perspective” and then fill in the gaps with the suitable option:
1. In 2005 [Jerry] Colangelo arranged face-to-face sit-downs with every prospective national team player, to hear in their own words why they wanted to represent their country. —Alexander Wolff, Sports Illustrated, 28 July 2008.
2. The novel is written from a child's perspective.
3. Advertising his prospective sports-ranking service, he sent out hundreds of letters to newspapers.
4. Her attitude lends a fresh perspective to the subject.
5. We have to look at everything from an international perspective.
6. He writes from a Marxist perspective.
7. When she started to burn out and didn't have the capital to renovate, she began showing the restaurant to prospective buyers.
8. Because of its geographical position, Germany's perspective on the situation in Eastern Europe is rather different from Britain's.
8. In chapter 16 the author uses the word “admission”. Explain the difference in the usage of the words “admission” and “admittance” by filling in the gaps with the suitable option:
It is often maintained that admittance should be used only to refer to achieving physical access to a place (He was denied admittance to the courtroom), and that admission should be used for the wider sense of achieving entry to a group or institution (her admission to the club; China's admission to the United Nations). There is no harm in observing this distinction, though it is often ignored. But admission is much more common in the sense "a fee paid for the right of entry": The admission to the movie was five dollars; Admission: $10 for adults, $5 for children.
We then have admission fee or admission free. Besides, the word admission is used to speak about a statement in which you admit that something is true or that you have done something wrong, e.g.The Senator's admission that he had lied to Congress shocked many Americans. Admittance on the other hand is related to official matters and is often used in a negative sense. You would see a sign that says No admittance outside a government research centre, in certain places at airports, which means in effect Keep out. It should also be noted that the word admission used in its plural form stands for the process of allowing people to enter a university, institution etc, or the number of people who can enter, e.g. The college has a very selective admissions policy.
10. In chapter 16 the author uses the words “barrister” and “solicitor”. Explain the difference in the usage of the words “barrister”, “solicitor” and “attorney” and fill in the gaps with the suitable option:
In the English system, solicitors represent people and prepare their cases before they reach the court; barristers present and argue the cases in court. Solicitors do not represent people in court except in magistrate’s courts.
In the American system, attorneys represent people, prepare cases and present and argue them in court.
Thus, in the UK the major role of the barrister is to conduct court appearances. While solicitors spend most of their time out of court. Solicitors are involved in the day-to-day legal affairs of their clients, primarily focused on tasks such as conveyancing of property transactions or providing legal services to businesses such as drafting contracts, the protection of intellectual property, the filing of defamation suits, advice on regulatory issues or any other type of legal service which their clients will need in order to assure their business processes.
Ex. 14 Translate the sentences into English in writing paying special attention to the use of vocabulary units:
1. Проблемы в компании начались еще до того, как он стал ее генеральным директором, но дела пошли еще хуже из-за его либерального стиля управления. laissez-faire management style
2. Когда обвиняемый сказал, что он не мог не совершить кражу, т.к. на кону была жизнь его семьи, это вызвало глубокое сочувствие среди присяжных. defendant, at stake,strike a chord
3. Мировое сообщество было удивлено тем, что Всемирный Банк решил оказать помощь обанкротившемуся государству без каких-либо условий. with no strings attached
4. В нашем банке одним из самых эффективных стимулов к работе являются многочисленные дополнительные льготы, такие как медицинская страховка и предоставление служебного телефона. incentive for, fringe benefits
5. Сотрудники, находившиеся на больничном во время проведения проверки и не явившиеся на общее собрание, получили строгий выговор, однако руководитель так и не услышал от них признания вины, вместо этого многие решили уволиться в знак протеста. on sick leave, reprimand, admission of guilt
6. Адвокат господина Джонсона пытался доказать, что его клиент не совершил никаких незаконных деяний и что обвинения в вымогательстве были безосновательны, однако прокурору удалось представить неоспоримые доказательства того, что недавно приобретенный автомобиль Джонсона был не подарком, а взяткой за содействие. barrister, illicit, extortion, prosecutor,freebie
7. В своем усердии заставить своих детей соответствовать образу «идеального человека» он стал настоящим фанатиком. И только несколько лет спустя он признал свои ошибки. zeal, conform to, bigot
8. До сих пор считается, что при приеме на работу имеет место некая предвзятость к женщинам. Но если судить по заслугам, то очевидно, что женщины ни в чем не уступают мужчинам. bias, judge sth on its merits
9. Стоит отметить, что наша задача заключается в том, чтобы превратить потенциальных клиентов реальных, несмотря на сильную конкуренцию. prospective clients
10. В результате массовых восстаний руководству страны пришлось отказаться от власти и уйти из политики. relinquish power
11. Одной из основополагающих функций прессы является распространение информации, а также предоставление объективных фактов. information dissemination
12. Вы не могли бы предоставить мне полный отчет о балансе расходов и доходов нашей компании, а также доклад о том, почему объем продаж в этом месяце упал на 7%. comprehensive, bottom line, plummet
13. Для того чтобы узнать хоть что-то о предстоящей сделке, им пришлось подслушать переговоры сторон. eavesdrop
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