Digital convergence, leading to a significant redistribution of roles in traditional media, is changing the role of the audience. From a passive and faceless mass which patiently consumes the proposed content, it is transforming into concrete groups, whose informational needs and communication habits can be precisely defined. Besides, the audience of converged media acquires one crucial particularity. The interactivity of new media offers a traditional consumer limitless opportunities of content choice. But, at the same time, an on-line media user becomes partly an editor or even the creator of new content. The user combines the consumer and the producer, allowing different roles and functions, separated until recently, to integrate. A concrete user turns into a factor at which, actually, the process of convergence is aimed.
Access to the new media turns into a complex problem of the era of convergence and it can be overcome only through the cooperation of major “players” in telecommunications. The state and the private sector with the active participation of the users themselves must work out both socio-economic and educational guarantees of access to new technologies and the Internet.
Predictions, forecasting death to the newspaper in competition with cinema, radio and television, are not coming true in the epoch of the Internet. Current reasons are more complex than ever. The process of media convergence, opening new and previously unknown horizons, has the same amount, if not more, of negative effects. Without political will of the state, the innovations and energy of the private sector, without a high level of the audience’s activity convergence may remain just an opportunity, forecast by futurologists at the turn of the century.
XIII. Translate the following text from Russian into English:
Люди перестанут различать компьютеры и телевизоры
Во главе спора будет стоять вопрос, произойдет ли в будущем слияние компьютеров и телевизоров в единый прибор. В случае, если это произойдет, в будущем не будет «телевизоров» или «компьютеров» как таковых, а появится новый прибор, который объединит функции обоих. Этот «вьюэр» будет выпускаться в различных размерах и формах, но рассматриваться будет как один и тот же товар, как, к примеру, маленькие телевизоры и большие считаются одним типом устройства. Хотя, возможно, вы более склонны использовать «вьюэр» на рабочем столе для поиска в Интернете или же отдельный «вьюэр» в домашнем кинотеатре для просмотра фильмов, вы сможете выполнять все задачи на любом устройстве. Другими словами, если бы вы сидели за столом и работали с «вьюэром», а вам позвонил бы друг и посоветовал посмотреть шоу, вы просто бы переключили ваш «вьюэр» на это шоу вместо того, чтобы идти в другую комнату к «ТВ-вьюэру».
Аргумент в пользу анти-конвергенции таков, что, в то время как телевизоры могут взять на себя некоторые функции компьютеров и, наоборот, в основе своей они будут считаться различными приборами. Исследования и поиск в Интернете будут проводиться на компьютере, а просматривать шоу и фильмы мы будет по телевизору.
Наконец, необходимо привести финальный аргумент в этом споре. Всегда существовали крайности в принятии технологии. Так как не существует технических причин, по которым телевизор не мог бы иметь те же функции, что и компьютер и наоборот, весьма вероятно, что оба устройства появятся в будущем. В действительности, уже сегодня the Gateway 2000 Destination series является телевизором с функциями компьютера, и также компьютеры могут иметь телевизионную панель управления и транслировать теле-контент. Без сомнения, будут люди, которые освоят эту технологию. С другой стороны, всегда будут люди, которые будут хранить свои телевизоры 68 года выпуска и просто добавят к ним цифровой декодер. Ни одна из этих крайностей не интересна.
На основе всего вышесказанного весь спор сконцентрируется вокруг того, какие функции будут иметь большинство телевизоров и компьютеров, а также вокруг того, какие типы СМИ будут транслироваться главным образом. Основной вопрос, который мы рассматриваем, это станут ли телевизоры и компьютеры более схожими в будущем, или же они будут эволюционировать независимо.
Ex. 1 Provide the Russian equivalents for the following words and expressions:
|Idioms and phrasal verbs 1. What makes smb tick (323)(чем он живет) 2. on the dole (323)получать пособие 3. take its toll (325)иметь негативные последствия 4. to duck one’s head (328) 5. to come down to earth (328) 6. be a piece of cake (328)пустячное дело 7. bring to the fore (332) 8. a loose cannon (344)||Useful words and expressions 1. To be tantamount to sth (315) 2. To be constrained (by time) (318) 3. Classical literature (318) 4. Synergy (320) 5. A (tax/wage) hike (321) 6. Pivotal (event, fact) (322) 7. An insurmountable problem (323) 8. jet lag (325) 9. to be adept at (doing) sth (325) 10. contend for sth (326) 11. tangible (330) 12. concise (330) 13. to be pertinent to sth (336) 14. grab (336) 15. an integral element (337) 16. poignant (339) 17. plight (341) 18. ensure (343)||Journalism related phrases 1. To employ metaphor/contrast etc. (316) 2. A historical feature (320) 3. A television host (323) 4. A clipping (324) 5. Gonzo journalism (325) 6. An excerpt (329) 7. Masthead (331) 8. The subject matter (332) 9. Punchline (333) 10. Writer’s block (333) 11. Byline (336) 12. Rookie (writers) (339)|
Ex. 2 Match the following definitions with the words and expressions below:
1. the additional effectiveness when two or more companies or people combine and work together synergy
2. making you feel sad or full of pity poignant
3. someone who has just started doing a job and has little experience rookie
4. to be very easy a piece of cake
5. receiving financial assistance from a governmental agency on the dole
6. incapable of being overcome; insuperable insurmountable
7. the title of a newspaper or magazine masthead
8. the tired and confused feeling that you can get after flying a very long distance jet lag
9. to make something more prominent or noticeable bring to the fore
10. the basic drive or motivation of a person what makes smb tick
11. a line at the beginning of an article in a newspaper or magazine that gives the writer's name byline
12. to be skilled or proficient in something to be adept at (doing) smth
13. a very bad situation that someone is in plight
14. directly relating to something that is being considered [= relevant] pertinent
15. to compete against someone in order to gain something contend for smth
16. a short piece taken from a book, poem, piece of music etc excerpt
17. to cause harm or suffering take its toll
18. clear enough or definite enough to be easily seen or noticed ______________
19. a necessary part of something an integral element
20. a person who cannot be completely trusted because their behaviour is sometimes strange or violent a loose cannon
21. to lower your head or body very quickly, especially to avoid being seen or hit duck
22. Equivalent in effect or value tantamount to
23. more important than anything else in a situation, system etc pivotal
24. short, with no unnecessary words [= brief] concise
25. to be limited constrained
26. An often abrupt increase or rise, e.g. in price hike
27. The emcee or interviewer on a radio or television program television host
28. an article or picture that has been cut out of a newspaper or magazine [= cutting] clipping
29. newspaper reporting that is concerned with shocking or exciting the reader and not with giving serious news gonzo journalism
30. a condition in which an author loses the ability to produce new work writer’s block
31. Matter under consideration in a written work or speech; a theme subject matter
32. the last few words of a joke or story, that make it funny or surprising punchline
33. to become realistic; to become alert to what is going on around one come down to earth
1. After his unemployment benefits ran out, his family was on the dole for a year.
2. An excerpt of the speech appeared in the Sunday paper.
3. The last point is particularly pertinent to today's discussion.
4. Three armed groups are contending for power.
5. Rescuing frightened cats is my specialty. Piece of cake!
6. "Poverty and inadequate health care take their toll on the quality of a community's health" (Los Angeles Times).
7. The language difference proved an insurmountable barrier.
8. He showed us his collection of old press clippings about movie stars
9. Divorce takes its toll on the children involved.
10. The scheme must have tangible benefits for the unemployed.
11. The programme's subject matter was quite unsuitable for children.
12. Few of us can be unmoved by the plight of the Romanian orphans.
13. The term gonzo journalism was first used to describe an article by Hunter S. Thompson, who later popularized the style.
14. He has no tangible evidence of John's guilt.
15. Several airlines have proposed fare hikes, effective October
16. Your summary should be as clear and concise as possible.
17. Most writers have trouble with writer's block at some point in their careers.
18. The silence of the countryside was almost tangible.
19. Vegetables are an integral part of our diet.
20. Our PR manager is very adept at deal ing with the media.
21. He's seen as a loose cannon by other team members. If anyone's going to get into a fight, it'll be Pete.
22. She ducked her head to look more closely at the inscription.
23. To leave a dog home alone is tantamount to cruelty.
24. The Bank of England has a pivotal role in the London money market.
25. Women's employment opportunities are often severely constrained by family commitments.
26. The article appeared in The Economist under her byline.
27. These rookie cops don't know anything yet.
28. I took apart the radio to find out what made it tick.
29. The president has proposed a hike in the minimum wage.
30. I always forget the punch line of his joke.
31. You have a fit of enthusiasm, John, but you must come down to earth. We can't possibly afford any of your suggestions.
32. What makes John tick? I just don't understand him.
33. Glad to help. It was a piece of cake.
34. Synergy is the ability of a group to outperform even its best individual member.
35. Every time I fly to the States, I get really bad jet lag.
36. All the talk about costs brought the question of budgets to the fore.
37. Famous TV host suspends show in response to censorship. (Egypt Independent)
38. The masthead is not only the title of a newspaper but also a list of its staff.
Ex. 5 In chapter 14 the author uses the expression “classical literature”. Explain the difference in the usage of the words “classic” and “classical” and then fill in the gaps with the suitable option:
1. He had all the classic symptoms of the disease.(typical)
2. Do you prefer classical music like Mozart and Mahler, or pop? (music)
3. Have you ever read Fielding's classic novel 'Tom Jones'? (high-quality)
4. Aggression is a classic example of anti-social behavior.(typical)
5. I adore the masterpieces of classical mythology. (Ancient Greece or Rome)
6. She chose a classic navy suit for the ceremony (simple,traditional and fashionable)
7. He is one of our greatest classical actors.(traditional)
8. The Coca-Cola bottle is one of the classic designs of the last century. (admired, high-quality)
9. It's classic - you arrive at the station on time and find that the train's left early.(typical,informal,unpleasant but expected)
10. Does she study classical ballet or modern ballet? (traditional)
11. Too many job hunters make the classic mistake of thinking only about what's in it for them.(typical)
Usage Note: Historic and historical have different usages, though their senses overlap. Historic refers to what is important in history: the historic first voyage to the moon. It is also used of what is famous or interesting because of its association with persons or events in history: a historic house. Historical refers to whatever existed in the past, whether regarded as important or not: a minor historical character. Historical also refers to anything concerned with history or the study of the past: a historical novel; historical discoveries. While these distinctions are useful, these words are often used interchangeably, as in historic times or historical times.
In chapter 14 the author uses the expression “historical feature”. Explain the difference in the usage of the words “historic” and “historical” and then fill in the gaps with the suitable option.
1. In a historic vote, the Church of England decided to allow women to become priests. (important)
2. She specializes in historical novels set in eighteenth-century England. (connected with history)
3. It is important to look at the novel in its historical context. (relating to the past)
4. Was King Arthur a real historical figure? (existed in the past)
5. Annecy is an historic town of cobbled streets, tiled roofs and beautiful canals. (important and interesting)
6. The area also benefits from various historic landscapes which the Council is keen to safeguard. (important because it’s old and interesting).
7. Preservation of historical records is the duty of a museum. (connected with history and the past)
8. This is a truly historic moment for the UK. (that will be recorded in history)
9. If you were able to spend an hour with one dead, historical figure, who would it be and what would you ask them? (connected with history and the past)
10. Every historian worth their salt will tell you that there is no such thing as historical accuracy.
11. Find out about the historic landmarks in your area. (important)
12. The book gives a historical survey of five major topics, with an overview of the relevant research.
13. Not many people read Sir Walter Scott’s historical novels these days. (based on people or events in the past)
Ex. 9 In chapter 14 you come across the word “ensure”, which has several confusables. Explain the difference between the words “ensure”, “assure” and “insure” and then fill in the gaps with the suitable option.
1. The airline is taking steps to ensure safety on its aircraft.
2. You should insure the painting for at least £100,000.
3. "Don't worry, your car will be ready tomorrow, " the mechanic assured him.
4. They refused to insure us because they said we're too old.
5. The Prime Minister assured the electorate (that) taxes would not be increased after the election.
6. Their 2-0 victory today has ensured the Italian team a place in the Cup Final.
7. You can rest assured that I shall be there as promised.
8. The house is insured for two million pounds.
9. The role of the police is to ensure (that) the law is obeyed.
10. All our household goods are insured against accidental damage.
11. Tim waited a moment to assure himself that he was not being followed.
12. Many companies won't insure new or young drivers.
Ex. 10. In chapter 14 you come across the word “to grab”, which has a number of synonyms. Explain the difference between the verbs “grab”, “seize”, “snatch” and “clutch” and then fill in the gaps with the suitable option.
1. I seized his arm and made him turn to look at me.
2. Let's grab something to eat before we go.
3. I knew that trying the alternative medicine was just clutching at straws.
4. He seized the chance/opportunity of a free flight with both hands
5. Vargas was snatched from his home by two armed men.
6. I have to go back in the house and grab my car keys.
7. Political instability helped the army to seize power.
8. He snatched the photos out of my hand before I had a chance to look at them.
9. Troops yesterday seized control of the broadcasting station.
10. He clutched at a pillar for support.
11. Why don't you go and grab some sleep?
12. When she saw his face, she was seized by fear.
13. The play grabs the audience from the opening scene.