True / False ex.4



F (permissible)

F (it’s considered)



F (at risk)



F (less freedom)

F (have no express)



F (is no requirement)



Matching ex. 5

a 9

b 1

c 8

d 11

e 10

f 3

g 4

h 5

i 2

j 6

k 12

l 7

m 13

n 15

o 14


Translation ex. 7

26. The defendant can pose a particular danger to society.

27. A number of Russian companies take the matter of libel action to court due to «spy» scandal.

28. Apple could lose the case (lawsuit) against Motorolla, regarding patent infringement on their smartphones.

29. The indemnification for moral damage is determined by the court and doesn’t depend on the amount of compensation for property damage.

30. IT Business Week is trying to analyze what entails limits on free speech on the Internet.

31. According to the Minister of Defense of Iran, Washington is trying to make semblance that Iran poses a serious threat to the Gulf countries.

32. Alaska Milk was a subject of a takeover by Dutch dairy co-operative Royal Friesland Campina.

33. An AT&T client has won a ruling against a cellular operator.

34. In that case (action) a libel action took place.

35. The article was an attempt to smear (discredit) the name of the party leader.


Fill in the gaps, ex.10

1. to sue

2. to disparage

3. spark

4. to intimidate

5. to defame

6. handed down

7. indemnify

8. brushed off

9. is passing the buck

to force media outlets


Chapter 5

Exercise 5: Summary lead 3); Direct lead 1); Quote lead 4); Question lead 5); Delayed lead 2).

Exercise 7: deluge i);lure c); province e); clog up k); to fumble a); hot air f); at stake b); plough through h); ponder d); muck about j); attribute g).

Exercise 8: 1)a lot of date– a deluge of data; 2) loafing – mucking about; 3) cramming – clogging up; 4) wading through – ploughing through; 5) sphere – province; 6) reflect on – ponder; 7) floundering around – fumbling; 8) ascribe – attribute; 9) tempting – luring; 10) hazarded – at stake; 11) chattering – hot air.

Exercise 9: 1) poignancy; 2) compulsion; 3) provoke; 4) avidity; 5) ponderosity; 6) fickleness; 7) irksome; 8) obscurity; 9) enlightenment; 10) rampage.

Chapter 6

Exercise 2: Lead Par – Summary of the event; Par 1 – important details; Par 2 – the history of the story; Par 3 – additional information about the theme of the article; Final Par - Background or progress of investigation.

Exercise 7:

      The highest part of something The most important or strongest part, event or point of something
pinnacle - +
apex + +
summit + -
peak + +
height - +
climax - +
top + +

Exercise 9: 1) 1. slander; 2. defamation; 3. libel; libel; 2) 1. fallback; 2. substitute; 3. fallback; 4. alternative; 3) 1. cohesion; 2. cohesion; 3. coherence; 4. cohesion; 5. coherence; 4) 1. desparate; 2. disparate; 3. disparate

Chapter 7

Exercise 3: 1. euphonious; 2. journalese; 3. detractors; 4. discordant; 5. dexterously; 6. laudable; 7. conformity; 8. lengthen; 9. deterrent; 10. espousal.

Exercise 8: Ernest Hemingway

Chapter 8

Exercise 2: 1. true [p.165]; 2. false [p. 166]; 3. false [p.166]; 4. false [p.168]; 5. true [p.168]; 6. true [p.170]; 7. false [p.172]; 8. false [p. 178].

Exercise 3: 1.diminution; 2. self-aggrandizement; 3. compliant; 4. sustenance; 5. retributive; 6. exempt; 7. abysmally; 8. insolvency.

Exercise 5: 1. off the cuff; 2. turned the tables on; 3. did her utmost; 4. tunnel vision; 5. vested interests; 6. to give free reins to; 7. sound-bites; 8. ghostwriters; 9. to win kudos; 10. white-collar crimes; 11. no-go.

Exercise 7: 1.multi-faceted; 2. shenanigans; 3. breach; 4. pecuniary; 5. misappropriated; 6. jousted; 7. savvy; 8. bombshell.

Exercise 8: 1. follow hunches; 2. tipped off; 3. canvassed; 4. prime examples; 5. deflect; 6. head off; 7. lodged; 8. withhold; 9. intimidate; 10. interminable.

Exercise 10: (1) – 3; (2) – 5; (3) – 7; (4) – 2; (5) – 4; (6) – 6; (7) – 1.

Exercise 11: (1) – embodiment; (2) – indomitable; (3) – visionary; (4) – endowed; (5) – be attributed; (6) – made provision; (7) – public service; (8) – dynamic progression; (9) – an overseer advisory board; (10) – suspend; (11) – substituting; (12) – conducive; (13) – rendered; (14) – withhold any award; (15) – overrule the recommendations.


Chapter 9


Fraught with legal danger; strive for accuracy; to divulge the identity of the source; to vouch for; to build rapport; divisive issues; one common ploy of politicians; to canvass public statements; evasive interviewee; to gnaw at confidence; to ignore barbs; newsworthy individuals; to be more lenient to; to sidetrack to other issues/ subjects; to draw on emotion; consensual interview; to have a knack for asking questions; a sound bite; to skew; to slant; to piggyback on popular issues; defamatory questions; innocuous topic; to center on; to bar from doing something; to blend into any crowd; to keep track of; an even-handed tone; a well-timed telephone call, to suppress any mention.



14. Every journalist must strive for accuracy, fairness and disclosure of all essential facts.

15. Journalists should always consider a source’s track record: Have they been reliable? Will others vouch for them?

16. Journalists might be reluctant to lose reliable sources’ goodwill by sticking to formalities.

17. For the source, anonymity can be a golden opportunity to ‘get even’ with an enemy while not having to take public responsibility for comments.

18. It can be difficult to keep track of who has said what.

19. This method can be used with media advisers who fob off general questions.

20. If the reporter picks up quickly on evasion, the interviewee may realize the tactic is pointless.

21. This can gnaw at the confidence of inexperienced reporters.

22. The expectation is that a journalist will blend into almost any crowd.

23. You mean you knew all the time and never let on?

24. Television interviews can border on the theatrical.

25. I do not know why we should be barred from trading to those places.

26. Take the other person fully into account, then remember and make sense of what that person heard and saw.


1.A 2. B 3. D 4. B 5. A 6. C 7. D 8. B


1. hindered 2. blocked 3. intervene 4. obstructed 5. barred 6. impeding 7. intervene 8. barred 9. obstruct 10. hinders


1 false 2 false 3 true 4 true 5 false 6 true 7 false 8 false


Interview is the most effective news-gathering tool but not necessarily the most trustworthy. Answers can differ depending on who is asking the questions and in what way. Often people will feel under no obligation to answer questions, especially when they have something to hide, at other times they are genuinely fearful of the public spotlight. They will lie, withhold the truth, or tell a portion of the truth. A journalist should develop his own ‘lie detector’ tests by asking difficult and ambivalent questions to which he already knows the answers. Quite often A journalist stumble upon more difficult situations when the interview takes on an emotional dimension. Sometimes people will move heaven and earth to get their name in the newspaper, while others are just as forceful in trying to suppress any mention. A journalist is neither a friend nor a foe. He must not reach personal conclusions; he should also avoid expressing his opinion. He should feel the atmosphere and the interlocutor and be able to probe before asking difficult questions. You should be wary of recording devices. Some people become hostile having felt that their voice is being recorded. Thus even the most eloquent person can become tongue-tied. In this case everything depends on the journalist: he can start a small talk to disarm an angry interviewee by an observation or a joke. This is not the complete list of obstacles a journalist can com across while interviewing however everything depends on his skills and personal qualities.



To relish doing smth; to clear a hurdle; to undergo a change; gratifying; vitriol; mind-numbing; to loom; formidable; to dole out; have smb on; a shelf life; to linger on; a cursory glance; to peruse; crucial; to confer with; to be under the umbrella; well-honed; have a foot in both camps; to spike; a rookie; a slick writer; to collate; against a backdrop of; a constraint; to be akin to; fulcrum


1. fulcrum 2. akin 3. habitat 4. spin doctor 5 mixed blessing 6 slick 7 well-honed 8 have a foot in both camps 9. liaises with 10.confer with


1 extricate itself 2 expunge 3 excluded 4 extricate 5 expunge

Ex 7

1 scanned 2 scrutinized 3 caught a glimpse 4 caught sight 5 inspect 6 cast a cursory glance 7 peer 8 scrutinize


1. My partner and I, we work like hell. We expect everybody else to do the same. Sink or swim!

2. The buck stops right here at the White Houseю

3. ‘See here,’ he exclaimed suddenly, looking sharply at the musician and deciding to take the bull by the horns, ‘you are in a quandary the same as I am, if you only stop to think.’

4. I loved even your so very British talent for hiding your head in the sand when you can no longer avoid the ugliness before your eyes.

5. I'm generally in favour of what you propose, but not enough to stand up and be counted.

6. He has had to shoulder the responsibility of his father's mistakes.

7. He's very clever at passing the buck to someone else.

8. Sort out all your problems once and for all!

Ex 10

The nature of newspapers has undergone enormous changes over the last period of time. The move to online news has forced to shift focus from bare facts to their analysis and discussion. Reporting has started to appeal to a broader audience. It may lead to the dumbing down of journalism in general. However, according to many experts, the problem of contemporary journalism is that it heavily influenced by advertising interests of media companies. Although really good journalists can strike a balance. Now journalism and PR are uneasy bedfellows. PR practitioners outnumber journalists. Many journalists turn into PR agents.Clever men hire public relations people to plant stories then pay to the lawyers and then feed them to the others. Many PR agents(former journalists) know how to manage, cajole and manipulate the media because they are from the media. Therefore there arise ethical and other problems that may hinder progress. Sometimes we can talk about understaffing although pr specialists have invisible desks in newsrooms. They reside in lifestyle sections. Here they produce thinly disguised advertorial that will later disrupt the reputation.


Chapter 11


Structural patterns: 1. Roads2. Plants3. Flowers4. The centre5.light6. up in the air7. Playing cards8. The theatre



Watchdog;hot tip; tip-off; t diffuse; a rich trove of information; divulge; intrepid adventurer; sought-after duty; to fall through; brawl; to embitter public debate; diehard; of no avail; warring factions; to inflame a situation; to insulate oneself; a sounding board; make a nuisance of oneself;

Ex 5

1. Foolhardy2 adventurous3 foolhardy4 reckless5 intrepid


1 enhance2 intensifying 3 heightened 4 aggravate5 intensified

Ex 7

1 disclosed 2 divulge 3 betray 4 revealed 5 divulge

Ex 10

To be successful, a journalist must develop a genuine interest in public policy. Their interests need to span everything from education, politics, and health to sports, business, and music. All knowledge does not come from books and academic circles. If you are determined to become a journalist, you must be alert to the world around you. You must read newspapers and magazines which encapsulate the week’s news events. It is also important to keep abreast of news bulletins. Apart from mundane research tools there are confidential contacts that you must obtain. Networking with a variety of sources is a reporter’s lifeline. Some sources will provide e telephone number on the proviso it is not shared with other journalists. It is of utmost importance to forge strong relationship with your informers and add new contacts to your contact book. Being neat and organized will help you a lot: no journalist wants to be fumbling through a telephone book or disorganized scraps of paper looking for an elusive telephone number. Working in this field you are exposed t stress. Emotions are contagious therefore try to insulate yourself from negative feelings. Sometimes you will be “the honest broker” between warring factions. In this case try not to inflame the situation. Time management is the most important thing. You can spend hours researching and formulating questions to no avail. Don’t panic, Try prioritizing to ease the stress.

Chapter 12 Answers



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