Ex. 2 Question 6 The Prosecution of the Press

  Britain America Australia
Name Daniel Defoe John Gwyn George Howe
Date 1704-1713    
Charge Libel (written defamation) Criticizing the government and the magistrates Libel
Punishment Pilloried, jailed twice Cut down, castrated, disembowelled, head cut off Newspaper suspended

Ex. 3. Supply one word (from Exercise I) that corresponds to the given definition

A. auspicious favourable or propitious

B. fulsome excessive or insincere, esp. in an offensive or distasteful way

C. penury extreme poverty

D. purported alleged; supposed; rumoured

E. sedition an incitement to public disorder

F. cartel a collusive international association of independent enterprises formed to monopolize production and distribution of a product or service, control prices

G. portent a sign or indication of a future event, esp. a momentous or calamitous one; omen

H. ploy a manoeuvre or tactic in a game, conversation, etc.; stratagem; gambit

I. affront a feeling of resentment or injustice at having been unfairly treated

J. stringer a journalist retained by a newspaper or news service on a part-time basis to cover a particular town or area

K. wrath angry, violent, or stern indignation

L. nepotism favoritism shown to relatives or close friends by those with power or influence

M. debacle a sudden disastrous collapse or defeat, esp. one involving a disorderly retreat; rout

N. licentious sordid; disreputable

O. doldrums a depressed or bored state of mind, a state of inactivity or stagnation

Ex. 6

1. Maps and guides can be _________ at the tourist office. obtained

2. Schiller _________ funds for the special education project. secured

3. He therefore persuaded a friend to _______ him a ticket without disclosing his identity. procure

4. AC Transit recently ________ 70 new buses equipped with wheelchair lifts. acquired

5. In 1998 the business was _________ by a Dutch company. acquired

6. Can you ______ the bags out of the car? get

7. The Boston Museum of Fine Arts has recently _______ several paintings by Salvador Dali. acquired

8. The statue was ________ at great expense by the City Corporation. acquired

9. A new-born baby will _______ weight at around one ounce per day. gain

10. Detroit ________ a spot in the finals with a 4-0 victory over Toronto. gained

11. Could you _____ me my keys from the kitchen? get

12. Scientists in Brazil are _________ medicines from plants. obtaining

13. Visitors must _________ a wilderness hiking permit to enter the park. obtain

14. The four men told the inquiry they did not know why the plane failed to _____ height after it took off. gain

15. Weisner is hoping to ________ funding for a follow-up study of the children. obtain

16. Did you _____ the job? get

17. Research helps us ________ new insight on the causes of diseases. acquire

18. Robinson spent $20 million to ________ the symphony hall. acquire

19. Hawaii _______ statehood in 1959. gained

20. Did you hear? Stuart _____ a new job. got

21. His ideas are _______ a lot of support. gaining

22. Try vinegar, which can be tricky to________, but complements many of the dumplings. procure

23. It took him a long time to _________ the skills he needed to become a professional artist. acquire

24. Many inner cities have ________ reputations for violent crime. acquired

25. NTN ________ the rights to broadcast game data from football games in 1987. acquired

26. Did you _____ my message? get

27. They had been ________ in the early years of the century through a carefully orchestrated city campaign. procured

28. The latest model is capable of ________ speeds in excess of 300 kph. attaining

29. When migrating, birds may _________ a height of three thousand metres or more. attain

30. It took her a long time to _______ enough confidence to speak in public. gain

31. France was able to _________ the release of two of its hostages. secure

32. Troops were brought in to ________ the area. secure

33. The train rolled forward, _______ speed rapidly. gaining

34. Alice offered pamphlets and books, which she would _____ for him. procure

35. He returned briefly to the Commonwealth's service, but retired when the Restoration became inevitable and _______ a royal pardon. procured

36. India ________ independence in 1947. attained

37. Jean Arthur worked for a decade before ______ stardom. attaining

38. Did you remember to _____ the bread? get

39. The balloonists _______ an altitude of 33,000 feet. attained

40. Oregon _________ a place in the NCAA basketball tournament. secured

41. She stayed in the job for give years, ______ valuable experience. gaining

42. If the borrowing member does not produce a basic valuation, then the building society must ______ one itself. procure

43. Fox had used company money to ________ a personal loan. secure


Ex. 8

1. Where can I obtain a copy of Pravda dated May 9, 1945?

2. The gallery has recently acquired a Renoir for the latast exhibition.

3. He secured the boat at a pole and hid the oars in the bushes.

4. I can't procure spare parts for my old Zaporozhets anywhere.

5. Soon he acquired the pertinent skills for his job as a sales manager.

6. Formerly Australian journalists relied on the telegraph to get news from Europe.

7. After the demise of the Soviet Union many of its republics gained independence.

8. The rocket gained a height of 3000 meters and caught fire.

9. The train was gaining speed fast, leaving the station far behind.

10. Due to doubtful deals in the realty market Michael acquired the reputation of a dishonest man.

11. When you are on your way home remember to get the letters from the mailbox.

12. The blue helmets secured the area, forcing foreign mercenaries to withdraw.

13. A detailed plan of the tour can be obtained at the information desk.

14. In order to acquire this car you will have to secure a credit of $ 3000.

15. She procured clients for him and he returned her 10 per cent on any deal.

16. The Congress of Vienna secured peace for Europe after the Napoleonic wars.


Ex. 9

1. In the 19th century it took several days to relay the news from Europe to Australia and now it takes about 30 minutes. 2. The modern age of computer technologies if often dubbed 'information age'. 3. The launch of a new newspaper or publishing house is not necessarily accompaned by favourable events. 4. In England Daniel Defoe is often considered the founder of journalism. He was a prolific writer who was literally pilloried and jailed twice for seditious libel. 5. An attack on the government and sedition are serious charges for imposing a criminal charge on the journalist. 6. A journalist who disregards the editorial policy and tries to circumvent the regulations on mass media, and who above all tries to invoke the readrs' attention by licentious articles, ofthen incurs the wrath of the government. 7. An insolvent paper often has to go in receivership. 8. The director has been touting his heir apparent for several months already. 9. After a few journalists had stepped up their attacks on several dishonest members of the governmentin order to curtail their power, the newspaper folded. 10. Some readers consider to be well within their rights to know the details of the private lives of polititians and if the latter had gone off the rails, they should be able to face the dire consequences of such behaviour. 11. The governor can be displaced on the President's whim, forfeiting his state-owned summer house and car. 12. The dictator treated the partymembers as lapdogs, forcing them to be in lockstep with his policy and stifling the variety of opinion. 13. People of all walks of life, undaunted by the power of the cartel, fiddling with the law, demanded guarantees against welfare retrenchments inspead of preposed short-term pallatives.



Chapter 4

a re-hash of smth подача старого под новым именем
tongue-in-cheek лукавый, насмешливый, иронический
to merit a one-paragraph pointer заслуживать вводной статьи из одного абзаца
to consign a story to page 9 сослать на 9 страницу
a nebulous crew туманный, неопределённый
fourteen-odd years примерно 14 лет
titillate щекотать, приятно возбуждать
to glean a sense of community life (facts, information etc.) собитать сведения по мелочам, обрывкам
per se само по себе, непосредственно
truism трюизм, банальность
to be hounded to death быть затравленным до смерти
to merit public attention заслуживать общественного внимания
aftermath последствия (событий)
to inflame an issue вдохновлять, зажигать, возбуждать
to refute опровергать, доказывать ложность, несостоятельность
to get better footage получить лучший видеоматериал
in a bid to elicit angry response в попытке получить (вызвать) гневный ответ
to impugn smb’s reputation подвергать сомнению, порочить чью-либо репутацию
endemic свойственный (о негативном)
an inordinate amount of time чрезмерное, несоразмерное количество времени
a use-by date срок годности
expiration срок годности, хранения, окончание срока действия
best before употребить до
shelf life срок хранения, сохранямость
to denigrate the original assertions клеветать, наговаривать, порочить предыдущие заявления
one-upmanship умение превзойти других, доказать своё превосходство, добиться преимущества
claim (7) lives повлечь гибель людей
adherent привреженец, поборник, сторонник
to skirt the issue уклоняться от темы, избегать темы
a nightclub brawl пьяная драка в ночном клубе
to hardly rate a mention едва ли заслуживать упоминания
to attain prominence добиться (заслужить) известности
to reflect on an individual’s public position отражать положение человека в обществе
latitude for fair comment свобода для справедливого комментария
to look tame выглядеть ручным, безобидным
tug at the heartstrings растрогать до глубины души
to jar readers’ stereotypes противоречить, вступать в конфликт со стереотипами читателей
a hermit отшельник
to become jaded пресыщенный, измученный, избитый; приесться
to stretch credulity быть сомнительным, вызывать сомнения
a smorgasbord of stories масса, множество, большой выбор историй (шведский стол)
the subjects are pap чтиво, макулатура
to fathom the idea of smth понимать, охватить умом идею
the then president бывший тогда президентом
to transcend values переступать пределы, превосходить, выходить за пределы ценностей
to foist a news agenda on smb навязать кому-то новостную повестку дня
to boo a badly targeted story выражать неодобрение, освистывать плохо поданную историю
trenchant criticism колкая, острая, чёткая, ясная критика
exposé разоблачение, разоблачительный материал

Ex. 3.












Ex. 5.

have an effect подействовать, повлиять
take effect возыметь эффект, проявиться
(have an) impact (on) воздействие, влияние, (сильно) воздействовать, (сильно) ударить, отразиться на
affect затрагивать, оказывать воздействие, влияние
Make a difference Положительно повлиять, сделать доброе дело, принести пользу, серьёзно влиять, отразиться
Take a toll Сказаться на, понести потери, жертвы
Leave a mark Оставить (свой) след
Tell on Сказываться на

Ex. 6

1. You can call and complain, but I don't think it will make any difference.

2. The government's policies have so far had little effect in reducing the level of inflation.

3. Bad working conditions eventually take a toll on staff morale.

4. The long dispute has left its mark on the mining industry.

5. How is the growth of e-commerce likely to impact the retail sector?

6. The new management team has clearly had an impact.

7. The power of the mayor's cronies began to tell as the election drew closer.

8. The dentist gave me an injection that took effect almost immediately, and I didn't feel a thing.

9. You can’t underestimate the impact of the Internet on all our lives

10. Einstein's work on relativity had an enormous impact on the way physics developed.

11. At first, the revolution had little impact on the lives of ordinary people.

12. Scientists are investigating the ways in which climate changes affect the ozone layer.

13. Just getting a new hairstyle and new outfit made a big difference to my confidence.

14.What you eat when you are pregnant can have an effect on your baby.

15. No one knows yet what effects genetically modified foods will have on the environment.


Ex. 7

1. The new defamation law comes into effect a month after it is signed.

2. It will not affect the publications printed before the 30th of June, but will affect the articles published after that date.

3. It is another attempt by the ex-governor’s proponents to make an impact on the results of the past elections.

4. The critics claim that it will not affect the quality of the articles printed in tabloids.

5. However the toughening of the law, which limits the freedom of speech is bound to tell on the civil society.

6. Several lawsuits have already had an impact on the exposés, conducted by the journalists.

7. Should the government’s attempts at stifling journalists have no effect, some newspapers may face closure.

8. This won’t impact large national newspapers, but may take its toll on the smaller regional ones.

9. It may also have an impact on TV and radio channels, which released a number of programmes, arguing that politicians should have no impact on the press.

10. The new governor has announced that he will not let the new law have an effect on honest, quality investigations.


Ex. 8.

1. suck, crap

2. awful, appalling, lousy, terrible, dreadful

3. UK rubbish US garbage

4. suck, appall

5. rubbish, garbage, crap


Ex. 10

- Recently I decided to watch the news. Such crap!

- Yeah, the programmes are dreadful, not like in the good old days.

- And the films are no better. The directors are really lousy!

- Right. The characters say a lot of old rubbish!

- Sure, and what about the Prime Minister’s recent speech? A load of old garbage, isn’t it?

- Even our café has become awful. The service is dreadful.

- And the food really sucks. The potatoes taste like soap, and the tea is like sewage.

- I told the waiter about it, and he retorted: Stop talking rubbish!


Ex. 12

expiry date, best before, shelf life, use-by date


Ex. 13

Words to be replaced:

wonderful, brand-new, impeccable, excellent, gorgeous, first-class, exceptionally fine, excellent, sweet, brilliantly-lit, magnificent, splendid, terrific, fabulous, pleasant, helpful, wonderful, magnificent, admirable, excellent, superior-quality, expensive, first-rate, lovely


Ex. 14.

1. hounded

2. skirt

3. refuted

4. titillate

5. inflame

6. merit

7. elicited

8. re-hashing

9. denigrate

10. consigned

11. claimed

12. jarred


1. trenchant

2. original

3. inordinate

4. tongue-in-cheek

5. jaded

6. nebulous

7. endemic

8. tame

9. then


1. exposé

2. truism

3. hermit

4. latitude

5. last resort

6. pap

7. adherent

8. footage

9. aftermath

10. brawl

11. heartstrings

12. smorgasboard


Ex. 15.

1. low-quality

2. inferior

3. cheap

4. shoddy

5. low-quality

6. shoddy

7. inferior

8. shoddy

9. badly

10. inferior



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