Ex. 16. Underline 10 ways to describe something not very good, but not too bad in the text below.





- Did you see 'Much Ado about Nothing?' during our trip to Humdrum?

- Yes, It was all right but not really worth the money I paid for the tickets.

- Why? What was wrong?

- Well, to begin with, the theatre itself is nothing special, just an ordinary modern building.

- And the actors?

- They are quite famous, but last night they gave just a lacklustre performance as in any amateur theatre.

- What about the cafe you visited afterwards?

- I have seen better service, though can't really complain. A mediocre establishment, nothing more.

- And the hotel? Did you enjoy your stay there?

- It is advertised as a four-star hotel, but is not really up to scratch. The rooms are bare and lacking some facilities.

- Did you visit the art gallery as well?

- Yes, but it was not what I expected. Some third-rate paintings by local artists. Nothing to write home about.

- Was the tour well-organised in general?

- I should say it's rather patchy. Good in some respects, but wanting in others.

Ex. 17

1. The reader may glean a sence of community life by perusing local newspapers and magazines. 2. When Mrs Smiths husband committed suiside she put it down on the press having hounded him to death and sued them for tongue-in-cheek treatment of their family life and the night-club brawl in which he defended her honour. 3. In a bid to elicit an angry response the journalist tried to impugn the minister's reputation, but the letter replied with a truism, forcing the journalist to spend an inordinate amount of time re-hashing the story, which was consigned to page 9 anyway. 4. Some journalists admit, that they write for themselves and the 'readersip' is just a 'nebulous crew for them'. 5. Although the story merited public attention, the editor decided it merited just a short one-paragraph pionter. 6. The trenchant criticism and the publication of numerious exposees has impugned the reputation of the then president Eltsin. 7. Many journalists dream of a latitude for fair comment, the ability to tug at the readers' heartstrings and the power to jar readers' stereotypes. 8. The readres are presented with a smorgasbord of stories in every newspaper, but the problem is, that some have become so jaded, that they stretch credulity and the newspaper is thus considered as pap.

 


Chapter 5

Ex. 1

to flutter трепетать (о сердце)
to arouse one’s curiosity пробуждать чьё-либо любопытство
to grasp понять, схватить основную идею
hot air пустая болтавня, похвальба
inaudible невнятный, неотчетливый, неслышный
to be adept at smth. быть знающим, опытным, сведущим в чем-либо
to fumble the main point нечетко выражать основную идею
to be at stake быть поставленным на карту
snappy intro лаконичное введение
compelling subject захватывающая, интересная тема
to plough through smth. корпеть над работой
to plough beyond a tangled lead продвинуться дальше замысловатого введения
poignant резкий, колкий (о словах, замечаниях)
provocative провоцирующий, вызывающий
enlightening разъясняющий, проливающий свет
to ponder on/over smth. Размышлять над чем-то
A run-up подготовительная работа, период
soul-wrenching climax кульминация, полная трагизма; душераздирающая кульминация
arty cravings претенциозные стремления
meticulously packaged тщательно, педантично проработанный, составленный
to become jaded пресытиться
to occur at one’s fingertips случиться в поле зрения кого-то
a fickle customer непостоянный, ненадежный клиент
an inscrutable customer загадочный, непонятный клиент
a succinct language сжатый, краткий, лаконичный язык
an avid reader заядлый читатель
a supersonic reader читатель, просматривающий только фотографии и заголовки, для того чтобы ознакомиться с содержанием газеты
a large type крупный шрифт
a province область, сфера деятельности
a deluge of words поток слов
cluttering details подробности, загромождающие текст
a ‘run-on’ sentence вводное предложение
an irksome fact банальный факт
to lure smb. to smth. завлечь, заманить кого-то куда-то
obscure невнятный, невразумительный, неясный
a flamboyant pop-star яркий, заметный исполнитель
judicious разумный, благоразумный, здравомыслящий
an eloquent language убедительный, выразительный язык
an overriding point важнейший, доминирующий вопрос
to clog up the intro нагромождать введение
to be germane to smth. быть уместным в чем-либо
minutes of meeting протокол встречи
a circuitous route окольный обходной путь
preconceived ideas предубеждения
preconceived ideas are rampant in the newsroom предубеждения – частное явление в отделе новостей

Exercise 5:

1.Direct lead 2. Delayed lead 3. Summary lead 4. Quote lead

5. Question lead

Exercise 7:deluge i);lure c); province e); clog up k); to fumble a); hot air f); at stake b); plough through h); ponder d); muck about j); attribute g).

Exercise 8:1)a lot of date– a deluge of data; 2) loafing – mucking about; 3) cramming – clogging up; 4) wading through – ploughing through; 5) sphere – province; 6) reflect on – ponder; 7) floundering around – fumbling; 8) ascribe – attribute; 9) tempting – luring; 10) hazarded – at stake; 11) chattering – hot air.

Exercise 9:1) poignancy; 2) compulsion; 3) provoke; 4) avidity; 5) ponderosity; 6) fickleness; 7) irksome; 8) obscurity; 9) enlightenment; 10) rampage.

Exercise 12:1. deliberated; 2. ruminate on; 3. brood over; 4. cogitating; 5. mulling over; 6. mused; 7. meditating.

Exercise 13:1. to arouse one’s curiosity, to flutter; 2. meticulous; 3. to be at stake; 4. to be adept at; 5. to plough through; 6. poignant criticism; 7. to ponder on/over; 8. to lure; 9. judicious; 10. in an eloquent way; 11. poignant comments, absolutely germane to; 12. overriding points, the minutes of meeting; 13. the preconceived way of bearing testimony.


Chapter 6

a blunder грубая ошибка, промах, просчёт
gibberish невнятный, непонятный, бессвязный
to tell a yarn about smth. рассказывать байки о чем-либо
a premise исходное условие
slash-and-stitch approach прием «лоскутного одеяла»
salient заметный, яркий, бросающийся в глаза
gist суть, сущность
to provide supportive quotes and background for the accident предоставлять опорные цитаты и историю происшествия
to be anchored in facts and opinions быть подкрепленным фактами и мнениями
pinnacle пик, вершина
to delve изучать, тщательно исследовать, рыться, копаться (в книгах, документах)
a mind-numbing quotation скучная, неинтересная цитата
a fledgling reporter начинающий репортер
repetitive / repetitious многословный, скучный
flagging of smth. маркировка; упоминание ч.-л.
to mull over обдумывать, размышлять
to scribble a rough outline набросать ориентировочный, приблизительный план
to flip through something пролистать, бегло просмотреть ч.-л.
to compile a list of contacts and questions составить список контактов и вопросов
admonition замечание, указание; настоятельный совет, наставление
transitional device связующий прием
seamless transition незаметный переход
to cobble together делать что-то на скорую руку
cohesion единство, сплоченность
to devise effective transitions придумывать, составлять оригинальные связующие выражения
to draw together the threads of various arguments соединить различные элементы
retrenchment сокращение; ограничение
a kerbside interview интервью, взятое на обочине дороги
to jeopardize an investigation поставить расследование под угрозу
to locate a witness найти свидетеля
to cross-check information проверять информацию
to put facts and opinions in a contiguous series of paragraphs последовательно излагать факты и мнения абзац за абзацем
defamation клевета
incriminating осуждающий, обвинительный
to overhaul совершенствовать
cutting-edge передовой, современный
to spawn создавать в большом количестве
fraught with smth. наполненный чем-либо
a fallback альтернатива, запасной вариант
conflict-based story история, основанная на конфликте, противоречии
disparate несравнимый, несопоставимый, несоизмеримый
a down-to-earth journalist разумный, практичный журналист

 

Exercise 3:Lead Par – Summary of the event; Par 1 – important details; Par 2 – the history of the story; Par 3 – additional information about the theme of the article; Final Par - Background or progress of investigation.

Exercise 6:A. slip, B. howler, C. blunder, D. misprint, E. error, F. typo, G. inaccuracy, H. mistake.

Exercise 8:

      The highest part of something The most important or strongest part, event or point of something
pinnacle - +
apex + +
summit + -
peak + +
height - +
climax - +
top + +

Exercise 11:1) 1. slander/defamation; 2. defamation/libel; 3. libels; 4. libels; 5. slandered; 2) 1. fallback; 2. substitute; 3. fallback; 4. alternative; 3) 1. cohesion; 2. cohesion; 3. coherence; 4. cohesion; 5. coherence; 4) 1. desparate; 2. disparate; 3. disparate; 5) 1. peruse; 2. wade through; 3. flip through

Exercise 12:1. premise of success; 2. to be anchored in facts and opinions; 3. gist; gibberish; 4. delving; 5. a fledgling reporter; to cross-check information; 6. to mull over; 7. retrenchment; 8. cutting-edge media; to overhaul; 9.to locate a witness; 10. to be fraught with; incriminating facts; libel.

 

Chapter 7

an ornate style витиеватый стиль
vigorous English энергичный, живой английский
to strive for smth. стремиться к ч.-л.
euphony благозвучие
ambiguity неясность, неопределённость, двусмысленность
a contrived sentence неестественное, натянутое предложение
a hackneyed language избитый язык
a journalese газетный штамп
fatuous бессмысленный, глупый
superficiality поверхностность
bloated stories раздутые истории
to detract from smth. отвлекать от ч.-л.
discord разногласие, противоречие, расхождение во взглядах
to jar раздражать, действовать на нервы
intimidating пугающий
equitable беспристрастный, непредубежденный
to dismantle information structures разрушать информационные структуры
to laud the conversational language превозносить разговорный язык
emendation улучшение, изменение, исправление (текста литературного произведения)
to wend one’s way прокладывать путь
an arcane business темное дело (тайный, скрытный; темный, загадочный)
to liken уподоблять, сравнивать
dexterity ловкость, быстрота, сноровка
litmus test лакмусовая реакция
uniformity единообразие; согласованность
a tenet принцип, доктрина, догмат
to conform smth. to smth. согласовывать ч.-т. с ч.-т.; приводить к соответствию
to stifle подавлять, сдерживать
lengthy words длинные слова
to comprehend понимать
to deter from smth. удерживать от ч.-л.
to ensue происходить вследствие ч.-л.; получаться в результате ч.-л.
brevity сжатость, краткость
to glean собирать, тщательно подбирать (факты, сведения, по мелочам, обрывкам)
to espouse поддерживать (дело, идею), отдаваться (к.-л. делу)
to slant the news тенденциозно, предвзято освещать события

Exercise 4:1. euphonious; 2. journalese; 3. detractors; 4. discordant; 5. dexterously; 6. laudable; 7. conformity; 8. lengthen; 9. deterrent; 10. espousal.

Exercise 8:1) 1. strives; 2. Craving 3. are striving; 4. crave for;
2) 1. vague / obscure; 2. obscure / vague; 3. ambiguous; 4. vague;
3) 1. strained; 2. contrived; 3. contrived; 4) 1. deter; 2. stifle; 3. abstain; 4. deter; 5) 1. ensued; 2. succeeded; 3. supervene; succeeds.

Exercise 9:1. The simplicity of narration helps readers to assimilate hard for comprehension information but for that all deprives journalists of an opportunity to gain expressiveness and euphony. 2. While writing an article dedicated to any significant affair new collocations and neologisms are often coined due to journalist’s language dexterity. 3. Superficiality of the coverage of the event brought about tension and ambiguity. 4. Participation of representatives of various scholar schools in the project will be a source of additional knowledge and experience, will bear a hand in resolving discords and provide an equitable view from outsider’s viewpoint on our research. 5. The use of such a number of quotes only jars on readers and detracts from the significance of describable events. 6. Television lauds the new ruler as a strategist. 7. To achieve clarity and precision of wording as well as to eliminate language and style failings a few emendations were made in text. 8. The substance of the tenet “business purpose” implies the point that any deal in which tax minimization occurs must pursue some object. 9. A well constructed plot, therefore, must neither begin nor end at haphazard, but conform to aforementioned principles. 10. Publishing the slanted version of the event occurred neither ensued the politician’s rating increase nor received any espousal among his proponents.

Exercise 11:Ernest Hemingway


Chapter 8

Ex. 1

to breach (a law) нарушать (закон);
to misappropriate незаконно присвоить, завладеть
to tip off информировать о случившимся или предстоящем событии
rein контроль
to give free rein to smth. предоставить свободу действий
mileage польза, выгода
a shenanigan махинация
a ‘white-collar’ crime преступление, совершаемое служащими
to follow hunches следовать интуиции, предчувствию
pecuniary interest денежный, финансовый интерес
insolvency банкротство
an electoral roll список избирателей
to canvass smth. анализировать, обсуждать, дискутировать о чем-либо
a prime example яркий, показательный пример
a gauge of public moods способ оценки общественного мнения
as cocooned from the public as politicians такой же закрытый от общественности, как политики
to joust with smb./smth. соперничать с кем-либо/чем-либо
grassroots широкие массы, простые люди
a diminution уменьшение, спад, снижение
to do utmost сделать всё возможное
to portray the government in a positive light изображать правительство в выгодном свете
an aggrandizement увеличение, расширение
to deflect criticism противостоять критике
to head off criticism предотвращать критику
to turn the tables on smb. выйти на кого-то, повернуть ситуацию на кого-то
out of thin air из ниоткуда, из ничего
interminable бесконечный, беспредельный
compliant податливый, покладистый, уступчивый
savvy сообразительный, толковый, смышленый
a sustenance поддержка, помощь
a sound-bite короткий отрывок, фраза из речи
tunnel vision узкий кругозор, ограниченность, узость взглядов
a set piece эпизод
a bombshell ошеломляющая новость, сногшибательное известие
off the cuff без подготовки
a ghostwriter фактический автор, тайно работающий на другое лицо
multi-faceted многогранный
a blueprint план, программа
to intimidate пугать, запугивать, устрашать
a no-go безвыходное положение, тупик
to win kudos получить почёт, всеобщее признание и уважение
a retribution наказание, расплата, кара
an exemption освобождение
abysmal глубокий, бездонный, неизмеримый
to lodge the Freedom of Information application ссылаться на закон о свободе слова
to withhold information утаивать, скрывать информацию

Exercise 3:1. true [p.165]; 2. false [p. 166]; 3. false [p.166]; 4. false [p.168]; 5. true [p.168]; 6. true [p.170]; 7. false [p.172]; 8. false [p. 178].

Exercise 4:1.diminution; 2. self-aggrandizement; 3. compliant; 4. sustenance; 5. retributive; 6. exempt; 7. abysmally; 8. insolvency.

Exercise 6:1. off the cuff; 2. turned the tables on; 3. do its utmost; 4. tunnel vision; 5. are giving … free reins to; 6. sound-bites; 7. the ghostwriter; 8. to win kudos; 9. white-collar crimes; 10. no-go.

Exercise 7:1.multi-faceted; 2. shenanigans; 3. breach; 4. pecuniary; 5. misappropriated; 6. jousted; 7. savvy; 8. bombshell.

Exercise 9:1. follow hunches; 2. tipped off; 3. canvassed; 4. prime examples; 5. deflect; 6. head off; 7. lodged; 8. withhold; 9. intimidate; 10. interminable.

Exercise 10:(1) – 3; (2) – 5; (3) – 7; (4) – 2; (5) – 4; (6) – 6; (7) – 1.

Exercise 11:(1) – embodiment; (2) – indomitable; (3) – visionary; (4) – endowed; (5) – be attributed; (6) – made provision; (7) – public service; (8) – dynamic progression; (9) – an overseer advisory board; (10) – suspend; (11) – substituting; (12) – conducive; (13) – rendered; (14) – withhold any award; (15) – overrule the recommendations.

Exercise 12:1. Reports on breaches of laws, robberies, misappropriation of property and funds, petty white-collar crimes and other illegal shenanigans are usually covered in a news bulletin. 2. Journalists are often tipped off about a perpetration of a crime ahead. 3. A major role in news search is played not only by visiting libraries, examination of state and federal handbooks, annual reports, register books, advertisements, archives, holding information on immigration, sessions of the court, insolvencies and dissolution of companies, but also by contact with grass-root readers. 4. Under the government of any country, state or city there are public relation practitioners, who are ready to do utmostto portray high-ranking figures and civil servants in a positive light. 5. A blueprint of performance considerably simplifies journalist’s work provided that a speaker doesn’t decide to change his theme and speak off the cuff. 6. Activists often run a risk of destroying their careers, meanwhile a journalist having taken an advantage of their services can win kudo. 7. All this data should be checked, most of the facts are suspected to have appeared out of thin air. 8. The all-encompassing presentation deflected all accusations against the would-be scientist of tunnel vision. 9. Tax exemption, an increase in social benefits served as a true state aid for low-income families. 10. The other part of the seminar was dedicated to canvassing the role of vested interests in the context of interethnic relations and social indentity.

Chapter 9

Ex.2

Fraught with legal danger; strive for accuracy; to divulge the identity of the source; to vouch for; to build rapport; divisive issues; one common ploy of politicians; to canvass public statements; evasive interviewee; to gnaw at confidence; to ignore barbs; newsworthy individuals; to be more lenient to; to sidetrack to other issues/ subjects; to draw on emotion; consensual interview; to have a knack for asking questions; a sound bite; to skew; to slant; to piggyback on popular issues; defamatory questions; innocuous topic; to center on; to bar from doing something; to blend into any crowd; to keep track of; an even-handed tone; a well-timed telephone call, to suppress any mention.

Ex. 6

1. Every journalist must strive for accuracy, fairness and disclosure of all essential facts.

2. Journalists should always consider a source’s track record: Have they been reliable? Will others vouch for them?

3. Journalists might be reluctant to lose reliable sources’ goodwill by sticking to formalities.

4. For the source, anonymity can be a golden opportunity to ‘get even’ with an enemy while not having to take public responsibility for comments.

5. It can be difficult to keep track of who has said what.

6. This method can be used with media advisers who fob off general questions.

7. If the reporter picks up quickly on evasion, the interviewee may realize the tactic is pointless.

8. This can gnaw at the confidence of inexperienced reporters.

9. The expectation is that a journalist will blend into almost any crowd.

10. You mean you knew all the time and never let on?

11. Television interviews can border on the theatrical.

12. I do not know why we should be barred from trading to those places.

13. Take the other person fully into account, then remember and make sense of what that person heard and saw.

Ex. 8

1.A 2. B 3. D 4. B 5. A 6. C 7. D 8. B

Ex. 9

1. hindered 2. blocked 3. intervene 4. obstructed 5. barred 6. impeding 7. intervene 8. barred 9. obstruct 10. hinders

Ex. 12

1 false 2 false 3 true 4 true 5 false 6 true 7 false 8 false

Ex. 15

The interview is the most effective news-gathering tool but not necessarily the most trustworthy. Answers can differ depending on who is asking the questions and in what way. Often people will feel under no obligation to answer questions, especially when they have something to hide, at other times they are genuinely fearful of the public spotlight. They will lie, withhold the truth, or tell a portion of the truth. A journalist should develop his own ‘lie detector’ tests by asking difficult and ambivalent questions to which he already knows the answers. Quite often A journalist stumble upon more difficult situations when the interview takes on an emotional dimension. Sometimes people will move heaven and earth to get their name in the newspaper, while others are just as forceful in trying to suppress any mention. A journalist is neither a friend nor a foe. He must not reach personal conclusions; he should also avoid expressing his opinion. He should feel the atmosphere and the interlocutor and be able to probe before asking difficult questions. You should be wary of recording devices. Some people become hostile having felt that their voice is being recorded. Thus even the most eloquent person can become tongue-tied. In this case everything depends on the journalist: he can start a small talk to disarm an angry interviewee by an observation or a joke. This is not the complete list of obstacles a journalist can com across while interviewing however everything depends on his skills and personal qualities.

 

Chapter 10

Ex. 3

To relish doing smth; to clear a hurdle; to undergo a change; gratifying; vitriol; mind-numbing; to loom; formidable; to dole out; have smb on; a shelf life; to linger on; a cursory glance; to peruse; crucial; to confer with; to be under the umbrella; well-honed; have a foot in both camps; to spike; a rookie; a slick writer; to collate; against a backdrop of; a constraint; to be akin to; fulcrum

Ex. 10

1. fulcrum 2. akin 3. habitat 4. spin doctor 5 mixed blessing 6 slick 7 well-honed 8 have a foot in both camps 9. liaises with 10.confer with

Ex. 13

1 extricate itself 2 expunge 3 excluded 4 extricate 5 expunge

Ex. 15

1 scanned 2 scrutinized 3 caught a glimpse 4 caught sight 5 inspect 6 cast a cursory glance 7 peer 8 scrutinize

Ex. 17

1. My partner and I, we work like hell. We expect everybody else to do the same. Sink or swim!

2. The buck stops right here at the White House.

3. ‘See here,’ he exclaimed suddenly, looking sharply at the musician and deciding to take the bull by the horns, ‘you are in a quandary the same as I am, if you only stop to think.’

4. I loved even your so very British talent for hiding your head in the sand when you can no longer avoid the ugliness before your eyes.

5. I'm generally in favour of what you propose, but not enough to stand up and be counted.

6. He has had to shoulder the responsibility of his father's mistakes.

7. He's very clever at passing the buck to someone else.

8. Sort out all your problems once and for all!

Ex. 19

The nature of newspapers has undergone enormous changes over the last period of time. The move to online news has forced to shift focus from bare facts to their analysis and discussion. Reporting has started to appeal to a broader audience. It may lead to the dumbing down of journalism in general. However , according to many experts, the problem of contemporary journalism is that it heavily influenced by advertising interests of media companies. Although really good journalists can strike a balance. Now journalism and PR are uneasy bedfellows. PR practitioners outnumber journalists. Many journalists turn into PR agents.Clever men hire public relations people to plant stories then pay to the lawyers and then feed them to the others. Many PR agents( former journalists) know how to manage, cajole and manipulate the media because they are from the media. Therefore there arise ethical and other problems that may hinder progress. Sometimes we can talk about understaffing although pr specialists have invisible desks in newsrooms. They reside in lifestyle sections. Here they produce thinly disguised advertorial that will later disrupt the reputation.

 

Chapter 11

Ex. 2

Watchdog ;hot tip; tip-off; to diffuse; a rich trove of information; divulge; intrepid adventurer; sought-after duty; to fall through; brawl; to embitter public debate; diehard; of no avail; warring factions; to inflame a situation; to insulate oneself; a sounding board; make a nuisance of oneself;

Ex. 6

1. Roads 2. Plants 3. Flowers 4. The centre 5.light 6. up in the air
7. Playing cards 8. The theatre

Ex 8

(1) 1. Foolhardy 2. adventurous 3. foolhardy 4. reckless 5. intrepid

(2) 1. enhance 2. intensifying 3. heightened 4. Aggravate 5. intensified

(3) 1. disclosed 2. divulge 3. betray 4. revealed 5. divulge

Ex 11

To be successful, a journalist must develop a genuine interest in public policy. Their interests need to span everything from education, politics, and health to sports, business, and music. All knowledge does not come from books and academic circles. If you are determined to become a journalist, you must be alert to the world around you. You must read newspapers and magazines which encapsulate the week’s news events. It is also important to keep abreast of news bulletins. Apart from mundane research tools there are confidential contacts that you must obtain. Networking with a variety of sources is a reporter’s lifeline. Some sources will provide e telephone number on the proviso it is not shared with other journalists. It is of utmost importance to forge strong relationship with your informers and add new contacts to your contact book. Being neat and organized will help you a lot: no journalist wants to be fumbling through a telephone book or disorganized scraps of paper looking for an elusive telephone number. Working in this field you are exposed t stress. Emotions are contagious therefore try to insulate yourself from negative feelings. Sometimes you will be “the honest broker” between warring factions. In this case try not to inflame the situation. Time management is the most important thing. You can spend hours researching and formulating questions to no avail. Don’t panic, Try prioritizing to ease the stress.

Chapter 12

 





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